Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Andaman Islands.


Ramana, M.V., Sanjappa, M., Venu, P. et al. 2014. Staurogyne andamanica (Acanthaceae), a new species from Saddle Peak National Park, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Kew Bulletin 69: 9506. DOI

The single population found is small (only 10 individuals), collected from the Kalpong River side. The National Park is not fully explored and in all probabilityStaurogyne andamanica occurs in other locations in the park; the area is well protected and there does not seem to be any perceived threat to its habitats/populations. The species is categorised as Data Deficient (DD) but may prove to be unthreatened should further sizable populations be located within the National Park (IUCN 2013).
India: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, North Andaman Islands, Saddle Peak National Park, Kalpong River, 13°10'08.3"N, 92°58'05.9"E.
In open scrub forest and found on gentle slopes, usually along dry water courses and along scattered rocks of loamy soils; alt. 225 m. Rainfall 2000 – 3000 mm/year. The associates include herbaceous Centothecaganeshaiahiana M. V. Ramana et al., and shrubby/tree spp., Brackenridgeaelegantissima (Wall.) Kanis, GuettardaandamanicaGoel & Mehrotra, Pandanus dubiusSpreng., Phoenix andamanensis S. Barrow, Podocarpusneriifolius D. Don, and Vernonia andamanica N. P. Balakr. & N. G. Nair.
Morphology General Habit
Tiny herbs, 3 – 5 cm high; rootstock woody; stem short, appressed hairy, usually unbranched, rarely branched; branches procumbent with 2 – 3 nodes and not stoloniferous, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves on the main stem in rosettes, little above the ground, opposite, larger, 2 – 3 cm long, 1– 1.5 cm wide, ovate, truncate or rounded at base, entire at margins, distantly faintly notched, subacute at apex, green above, pale beneath, both the surfaces hairy on the nerves; lateral nerves 5 – 6 pairs, joining above and forming intramarginal loop; leaves on the branches smaller, 1 – 1.5 cm long, 0.4 – 0.8 cm wide; petioles 2 – 5 mm long, rusty villous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 8 – 10 mm long, pale pink; pedicels up to 3 mm long, hairy; lower bracts 5 – 6 mm long, 1.5 – 2 mm wide, alternate, elliptic-obovate, penninerved; lateral nerves indistinct, hairy on the margins; upper bracts 3.5 – 4 mm long, narrowly oblanceolate, narrowed at base, acute or distinctly apiculate at apex or awned, covered with long spreading and short gland-tipped multi-cellular hairs; bracteoles 3 – 4 mm long, 2, linear-lanceolate, shorter than the calyx, hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, included; filaments 1.7 – 3 mm long, broad, flap-like with a distinct vein passing through, translucent, patently hairy, very shortly bifurcate at tip, bearing anthers on broad connectives; anthers c. 0.5 mm long, divergent during anthesis, subequal, pinkish, minutely hairy on one side, muticous at base, dehiscing through pores; staminode c. 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed to the base; lobes unequal in size (1+2+2) with acute tips, glandular hairy; posterior lobe 6.5 – 7 mm long, 0.5 – 0.7 mm wide, oblong-lanceolate; anterior pair 5 – 5 5 mm long, 0.3 mm wide linear-lanceolate; lateral pair 4 – 4.5 mm long, 0.1 mm wide, linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 5 – 6.5 mm long, ventricose, prominently veined, hairy externally, 5-lobed; lobes patent, slightly unequal, suborbicular, hairy outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c. 1 mm long, ovoid-oblong, shortly stalked at base, glabrous; ovules 15 – 20, aligned in two rows, from base to near to the apex; style 3 – 4 mm long, glabrous; stigma 2-lobed; lobes unequal, longer c. 0.7 mm long, simple, shorter c. 0.2 mm long, notched at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (only immature seen) ovoid-oblong, c. 2 mm long included in persistent calyx, glabrous, 15 – 20-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal spiciformthyrse 1.5 – 2 cm long, 3 – 6-flowered, densely hairy; hairs of two types: long, white multi-cellular hairs and spreading short gland-tipped colourless hairs

Staurogyne andamanica is more allied to S. zeylanica, which is known from Sri Lanka and India (excluding the Andaman & Nicobar Islands), in its habit, leaf shape and indumentum, inflorescence and presence of a staminode. However it differs from it in the following features (Table 1).

The species is named after the locality, the Andaman Islands.

The new taxon is very distinctive both in vegetative and reproductive features from Staurogyneargentea, the only other species known from the Andaman Islands. S. argentea, produces large leaves (up to 10 cm long and 5 cm wide) which are oblong-lanceolate in shape and distinctly net veined on the lower surface. The inflorescence which is a cylindric/capitate spike bears bristly bracts, bracteoles and calyx lobes while the corolla is purple with rose marks.
Flowering January – February.
Type: India, North Andaman Islands, Saddle Peak National Park, Kalpong R., 225 m alt., 18 Jan. 2013, M. V. Ramana 1185 (holotype CAL; isotypes BSID, PBL).

Native to:

Andaman Is.

Staurogyne andamanica M.V.Ramana, Sanjappa, Venu & Chorghe appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 69(2)-9506: 1 (2014)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Backer, C. A. & van den Brink, R. C. B., Jr. (1963). Flora of Java 2, 544 – 553. N.V.P. Noordhoff-Groningen.
  • Braz, D. M. & Monteiro, R. (2011). Typification of Neotropical Species of Staurogyne (Acanthaceae). Novon 21: 174 – 177.
  • Cramer, L. H. (1998). Acanthaceae. In: M. D. Dassanayake (ed), A Revised Hand book to the Flora of Ceylon 12: 1 – 140. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
  • Hooker, J. D. (1885). The Flora of British India 4: 387 – 403. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Hossain, A. B. M. E. (2004). Taxonomic structure of the Nelsonieae (Acanthaceae) -I: Generic circumscriptions and their interrelationships. Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 11: 19 – 30.
  • Hu, J., Deng, Y. & Thomas F. D. (2011). Staurogyne. In: Z. G. Wu et al. (eds), Flora of China 19: 372 – 376. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • IUCN (2013). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3:1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. & Moorthy, S. (2009). Flowering Plants of India–Dicotyledons 1: (Acanthaceae 1 – 62). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F., Kiel, C. A. & Borg, A. J. (2012). Phylogenetic placement, delimitation, and relationships among genera of the enigmatic Nelsonioideae (Lamiales: Acanthaceae). Taxon 61 (3): 637 – 651.
  • Pandey, R. P. & Diwakar, P. G. (2008). An Integrated Checklist of Flora of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 32: 403 – 500.
  • Rebecca, C. W. & Danile, T. F. (2009). Molecular Phylogeny of Nelsonioideae (Acanthaceae) and Phylogeography of Elytraria. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 60 (5): 53 – 68.
  • Scotland, R. W. & Vollesen, K. (2000). Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bull. 55: 513 – 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Trimen, H. (1898). A Hand Book to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 286 – 290. L. Reeve & Co., London.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.