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This species is accepted, and its native range is Iraq.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium


Ahmad, S.A. 2014. Scrophularia sulaimanica (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from Kurdistan, Iraq. Kew Bulletin 69: 9509. DOI

Scrophularia sulaimanica is extremely rare; its IUCN Red List category (IUCN 2001) remains uncertain and is currently assessed as Data Deficient (DD).
Endemic to Hawraman Mts (Map 1).
Between rocks, on cliffs, or eroded places, 1069 – 1895 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herbs perennial, sparsely to densely glandular, not glaucous
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves broadly lanceolate in outline, deeply incised to pinnatifid, 2 − 5 × 1 − 2.5 cm, sparsely to densely glandular; petioles 3.5 − 7 cm; middle and upper cauline leaves alternate, lanceolate, pinnatifid to deeply incised or coarsely dentate, petiolate, gradually reduced in size upwards and becoming dentate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes orbicular to broadly ovoid in fruit, 3 − 4 mm, glabrous, scarious margin undulate, lacerate, 0.8 − 1.4 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla urceolate, 6 − 7 mm, maroon; lateral lobes white-margined; upper lip not margined, emarginate, 3 − 3.5 mm, lobes suborbicular; lower lip white; corolla tube white, c. 3 mm; staminode subsessile, broadly ovoid, 0.8 − 1 mm, inserted at corolla throat, not reaching notch of upper lip; filaments of fertile stamens c. 1.5 mm, glabrous; anthers 1 − 1.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, 2-lobed, 3.5 − 5 mm in diam., glabrous, apiculate; style 3.5 − 4 mm; seeds oblong, black, slightly curved, c. 1.5 × 0.5 mm, scrobiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Thyrse much branched, 35 − 85 cm; cymes 5 − 7-flowered, alternate, fewer flowered distally, sparsely glandular, peduncle 0.7 − 2 cm; lowermost bracts leafy, short petiolate, elliptic, 5 − 15 × 2 − 5 mm, becoming subulate-linear upwards, 3 − 6 × to 1 mm, and without scarious margin; bracteoles similar to distal bracts, smaller; flowering pedicels slender, 2 − 4 mm, substantially longer than subtending bracteoles; fruiting pedicels of central flower somewhat thick, angled, 4 − 6 mm, sparsely glandular or glabrous
Morphology Stem
Stems (50 −) 75 − 145 cm tall, several to many from woody caudex, erect to ascending, solid, terete or subterete, glabrous, glandular, branched below the thyrse

Scrophularia is a well-represented genus in Southwest Asia, with 57 species in Turkey (Lall & Mill 1978) and 64 species in the Flora Iranica area (Grau 1981). The Hawraman mountains have 12 of the 18 species currently known from Kurdistan Iraq, and it is expected that with further exploration in Kurdistan, the number of species will be found to be considerably higher.

Scrophularia sulaimanica, which is named after the Sulaimani Province of Kurdistan Iraq, is somewhat closely related to the Iranian endemic S. valida Grau and the Anatolian-Caucasian S. thesioidesBoiss. From the former, it differs by having solid (vs hollow) stems, glandular (vs pruinose-canescent) indumentum, smaller (6 − 7 mm vs c. 8.5 mm) and maroon (vs brown with purplish veins) corolla, much smaller (0.8 – 1 mm vs 2.5 mm) broadly ovoid (vs elliptic) staminode substantially smaller than (vs subequal to) upper corolla lip, and shorter (c. 1.5 mm vs 5.5 mm), glabrous (vs hispidulous) filaments. From S. thesioides, the new species differs by being glandular (vs non-glandular), with terete (vs narrowly winged) stems, lanceolate (vs linear) upper leaves, larger (3 − 4 vs 2 − 2.2 mm) calyx lobes, broadly ovoid (vs narrowly oblong) staminodes, globose (vs ovoid) fruits, and pedicels substantially longer (vs much shorter) than bracteoles.

Glandular, terete or subterete, solid stems; maroon corolla 6 – 7 mm; broadly ovoid staminodes 0.8 – 1 mm much smaller than upper corolla lip; and globose fruits.
Type: Iraq, Kurdistan, Sulaimani Province, Hawraman Mts, between Darashesh and Hawar, eroded places by roadside, 1069 m, 35°11'13"N, 46°04'22"E, 16 June 2012, Saman A. Ahmad 12-320 (holotype, SUFA!; isotypes, K!, MO!, SUFA!).

Native to:


Scrophularia sulaimanica S.A.Ahmad appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Ahmad, S.A. [320], Iraq K001044999 isotype

First published in Kew Bull. 69(2)-9509: 1 (2014)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Grau, J. (1981). Scrophularia. In: K. H. Rechinger (ed.), Flora Iranica 147: 213 – 284. AkademischeDruck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Lall, S. S. & Mill, R. R. (1978). Scrophularia. In: P. H. Davis (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 603 − 647. University Press, Edinburgh.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.