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This species is accepted, and its native range is India (Karnataka).


Gholave, A.R., Kambale, S.S., Lekhak, M.M. et al. 2015. Combretum shivannae (Combretaceae), a new species from India. Kew Bulletin 70: 33. DOI

Combretum shivannae is so far only known from the type locality; it is assessed as Data Deficient (DD) following the IUCN Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2010).
Combretum shivannae is so far known from Yana Forest, Uttar Kannada District, Karnataka, India.
The species grows as a climber in evergreen forest. The common associates are Anamirta cocculus (L.) Wight & Arn., Chrysophyllum roxburghii G. Don, Harpullia arborea Radlk., Neuropeltis racemosa Wall., Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R. Br. and Syzygium laetum (Buch.-Ham.) Gandhi.
Morphology General Habit
Climber, several m (5 – 10) long
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sub-opposite to opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, 2 – 13.5 × 1.5 – 5.5 cm, glabrous above, hairy on nerves beneath, with sparsely distributed glandular hairs, domatia as tufts of brown hairs in the axils of secondary vein, base rounded, margins entire, wavy, slightly curling downwards, ciliate, apex acuminate, lateral veins 4 – 8 pairs, adaxially faint, abaxially prominent, marginal ultimate veins recurved to form loops; petioles 0.3 – 0.5 cm long, slightly swollen, pubescent; hairs brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5-merous (very rarely 4-merous), sessile, 4 – 4.5 × 2.5 – 2.8 cm, bracteate; bracts ovate, 3.5 – 3.8 × 0.7 – 0.8 mm, fulvous pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5+5, inserted in the throat of the calyx tube; filament c. 0.5 cm long; anthers c. 0.8 × 0.5 mm, dorsifixed, bicelled, apex protruded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, rarely tinged pink in the centre, 1.3 – 1.5 × 0.4 – 0.5 cm, ovate, glabrous above, pubescent beneath along mid vein; mid vein faint adaxially, prominent abaxially, light green, dividing the petal into 2 unequal halves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 4 – 6 × 1 – 1.5 mm, fulvous pubescent, pentangular, 1-celled, with 3 ovules, placentation pendulous; style 2.8 – 3.0 cm long, adnate to the calyx tube for 0.35 – 0.8 cm, upper free portion of the style 2 – 2.5 cm long, pale green, slender; stigma capitate, pale green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium pale green, 3.5 – 4 cm long, pubescent, teeth subulate, c. 1.8 × 1.2 mm, ciliolate, apex recurved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits not seen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal axillary, spicate, 5 – 15-flowered; peduncles 2 – 10 cm long, terete, fulvous pubescent
Morphology Stem
Stems 2 – 5 mm in diam., terete; bark light brown, peeling off with maturity, petioles of some leaves on old stem persistent, spiny; spines 0.3 – 0.8 cm long, slightly hooked; young branchlets fulvous pubescent, with sparsely distributed glandular hairs; hairs antrorse, dark brown
Combretum shivannae resembles C. malabaricum in its pentamerous flowers with included stamens but differs in its pubescent stem, long hypanthium and style, ovate bracts and white petals (vs glabrous stem, short hypanthium and style, linear bracts and deep pink coloured petals as in C. malabaricum) Figs 1K, L, 2A – D.

Combretum shivannae shows affinities with C. malabaricum. However, the long hypanthium, white petals and the fulvous pubescent nature of the plant differentiate C. shivannae from C. malabaricum. C. indicum is a pantropical species quite distinct from C. shivannae. The former is known for its ornamental value and differs from C. shivannae in its usually bright red flowers which sometimes can be white. C. indicum also has a very long hypanthium (5.5 – 7.5 cm long or sometimes up to 9 cm long), oblanceolate or obovate petals, exserted styles and stamens rather than a shorter hypanthium (3.5 – 4.0 cm long), ovate petals, included styles and stamens in C. shivannae.

The specific epithet honours Dr Kundaranahalli Ramalingaiah Shivanna, INSA Honorary Scientist and former Professor, University of Delhi, Delhi for his tremendous contributions in the field of Plant Reproductive Biology.

Flowering Jan. – March; fruiting not seen

Type: India, Karnataka, Uttar Kannada Distr., Yana forest (14°33.155'N 74°32.716'E), 151 m alt., 25 Jan. 2014, A. R. Gholave, S. S. Kambale & M. M. Lekhak SSK-206 (holotype CAL!; isotypes BSI!, K!, SUK!).

Native to:


Combretum shivannae Gholave, Kambale, Lekhak & S.R.Yadav appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Gholave, A.R. [SSK 206], India K000342302 isotype

First published in Kew Bull. 70(3)-33: 1 (2015)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Bhat, K. G. (2005). Combretum razianum (Combretaceae), a new species from Karnataka, India. Indian J. Forest. 28(2): 210 – 212.
  • Chen, J. & Turland, N. J. (2007). Combretaceae. Flora of China, vol. 13. Online publication: (accessed August 2014).
  • Gangopadhyay, M. & Chakrabarty, T. (1997). Family Combretaceae of Indian Subcontinent. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 281 – 364.
  • IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (2010). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 8. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee in March 2010.
  • Jongkind, C. C. H. (1991). Novitatesgabonensis 6. Some critical observations on Combretum versus Quisqualis (Combretaceae) and description of two new species of Combretum. Adansonia 3 – 4: 275 – 280.
  • Jordaan, M., Van Wyk, A. E. & Maurin, O. (2011). Generic status of Quisqualis (Combretaceae), with notes on the taxonomy and distribution of Q. parviflora. Bothalia 41(1): 161 – 169.
  • Maurin, O., Chase, M. W., Jordaan, M. & Van Der Bank, M. (2010). Phylogenetic relationships of Combretaceae inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data: implications for generic classification. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 162: 453 – 476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Stace, C. A. (2007). Combretaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants, 9: 67 – 82. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Sujana, K. A., Ratheesh Narayan, M. K. & Anil Kumar, N. (2012). A new combination and a new species in Combretum (Combretaceae) from India. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 6(2): 453 – 458.
  • The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; (accessed 30th July 2013).

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.