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This species is accepted, and its native range is India (Kerala, Karnataka).


Prabhukumar, K.M., Balachandran, I., Sreekumar, V.B. et al. 2015. Gymnostachyum warrieranum (Acanthaceae), a new species from the Western Ghats of India, based on morphological and molecular data. Kew Bulletin 70: 40. DOI

Gymnostachyum warrieranum has been collected only from two different areas of the same forest, the extent of occurrence is estimated to be less than 10 km2 and we could locate only a few populations with a total of c. 25 individuals, so the status is here assessed as ‘Critically Endangered’ (CR B1ab(i,ii,iv) and 2ab(i,ii,iv)) using IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2013).
India, Kerala.
The new species was collected only from the type locality of Aralam forest, Kannur dist., Kerala. It is recorded as an undershrub in the patches of evergreen forests at an elevation of 350 – 550 m.
Morphology General Habit
An undershrub up to 70 cm high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite; petiole 3 – 11 cm long with light brown colour, slender, terete, glabrous; lamina broadly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 16.5 – 38.5 × 7.2 – 16.5 cm, acuminate at apex and acuminate-attenuate at base, margin entire, surfaces glabrous, dark green above, pale beneath, main veins 8 – 13 pairs lateral nerves, parallel, equally spaced and prominent on both surfaces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers subsessile, flower purple to greenish yellow in colour, pubescent throughout, 2.1 – 2.4 cm long; floral bracts 4 – 4.5 mm long, lanceolate, acute at apex, pubescent, ciliate along margins; bracteoles 1.8 – 2 mm long, lanceolate, pubescent and ciliate along margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2, held within hooded upper lip; filaments c. 20 mm long, adnate at base of ventricose portion of corolla tube, pubescent; anthers bithecous; anther thecae c. 1.7 – 1.8 mm long, purple in colour, oblong, obtuse at both ends, contiguous at distal end, densely glandular hairy dorsally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, lanceolate, 4.8 – 5 mm long, divided almost to the base; lobes equal, acute at apex, pubescent, ciliate along margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tube 1.1 – 1.2 cm long, cylindrical, straight; lobes 1 – 1.1 × c. 1.1 cm long, purple-coloured in abaxial and greenish yellow on adaxial side, glandular-pubescent; bi-lipped; upper lip c. 8 mm long, straight, not hooded, emarginated or shallowly lobed; lobes c. 0.2 – 0.6 × 0.3 mm, obtuse; lower lip c. 9 mm long, shallowly 3-lobed; lobes c. 1.5 – 2 × c. 2 mm, ovate, acute, hooded, recurved at apex on opening
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary conical, glabrous; style c. 20 mm long, ciliate throughout; stigma curved, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 1.8 – 2.2 cm long, linear, glabrous, apiculate at tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, spikes of many-flowered cymes, normally consisting of 14 – 36 flowers, 7 – 15.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, 14 – 18 per locule, smooth, flattened
Morphology Stem
Stems terete, glabrous
Similar to Gymnostachyumlatifolium var. decurrens in many attributes but differs by having round, glabrous stems and petioles (not quadrangular, scabrous) lanceolate bracts and bracteoles with acute apex (not linear with acuminate apex), purple with greenish-yellow corolla, less than 2.5 cm long (not light yellow, greater than 3 cm), the upper lip not hooded (not deeply hooded), the corolla tube less than 1.2 cm (not greater than 2 cm), anthers ovate with glandular hairs (not hastate, glandular hairy without), straight filaments and orbicular seeds (not bent above at the connective, oblong to ovate seeds). Flowering November – March. The new species is named after Padmabhooshan Dr P. K. Warrier, Managing Trustee, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal in honour of his immense contribution to the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, and dedicated service to society for more than six decades.
Type: India, Kerala, Kannur Distr., ±550 m, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kannadivechakunnu, 12 Nov. 2010, K. M. Prabhukumar & K. J. Dantas 31845 (holotype CMPR!; isotypes CALI!, KFRI!, MH!).

Native to:


Gymnostachyum warrierianum K.M.P.Kumar, Balach. & V.B.Sreek. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 70(3)-40: 2 (2015)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


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The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.