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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.
Viola suffruticosa Willd., watercolour on paper

[FZ]

Violaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb (occasionally annual or ± shrubby), flowering the first year, up to 60 cm. high (rarely to 3 m.).
Morphology Stem
Stems slender, branching from near the base, erect or ± spreading, terete or flattened or ± ridged, with raised lines decurrent from the stipules and the leaf-bases, glabrous to pubescent or densely hirsute.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves not crowded, subsessile or narrowing to a short petiole; lamina (1) 2–6.5 x 0.2–2.2 cm., linear to elliptic or obovate, acute to obtuse or rounded, cuneate at the base, entire or ± crenate to serrate-dentate, membranous or ± coriaceous, glabrous to pubescent or densely hirsute, venation prominent or not; stipules c. 1.5–4 mm. long, subulate, glabrous or pubescent, terminating in a gland.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary in the axils of foliage leaves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 4–18 mm. long, slender, glabrous or ± pubescent, with two triangular or subulate bracteoles in the upper half.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3–4 mm. long; subequal, lanceolate, acute, ± prominently carinate, glabrous or ciliate-pubescent (especially the keel).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Anterior petal (5) 10–15 (20) mm. long, including a short obtuse spur, unguiculate, the claw exceeding the calyx, the lamina varying in shape from suborbicular or obcordate to subquadrate and in colour from rose-pink to violet or bluish, glabrous or ciliate; lateral petals asymmetric, ± triangular-ascending, rounded and often darker in colour at the apex; dorsal petal symmetric, triangular-acuminate, often expanded and darker at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Androecium shorter than the lateral petals, the 3 lateral stamens with short filaments, the 2 anterior ones with longer filaments bearing pilose spur-appendages; anthers oblong-elliptic, glabrous or pilose, with a rounded connective-appendage.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary ovoid-globose, glabrous; style about twice as long as the ovary, expanded above, ascending.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 5–8 mm. long, 3-sided, pale yellow, glabrous, coriaceous, smooth or slightly reticulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 1–5 mm. long, c. 9–12 per capsule, ovoid-ellipsoid, longitudinally ribbed, glabrous.

[FWTA]

Violaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Erect, simple or often with numerous vertical branches from the base, up to 12–18 in. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers lilac or bluish.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb, or a subshrub, glabrous to pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, with blade linear to oblanceolate, 5–80 x 1–14 mm, narrowing below into a petiole-like base, acute to subobtuse at the apex, subentire to crenate-serrate, glabrous to pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels 5–15 mm long, with a pair of subulate bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate, 2.5–4 mm long, glabrous or pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals pink, violet or white, the lowermost 8–19 mm long and much larger than the others
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 5–8 mm long, usually glabrous.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3 widespread in Africa, also in Asia.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1500 m.
Vernacular
Din-din, habmale (Somali)
Note
A very variable taxon that has been subdivided into a number of infraspecific taxa in East Africa (see Grey-Wilson in Kew Bull. 36: 103 (1981) and 39: 771 (1984). Most Somali plants probably belong to the widespread and ± weedy var. enneaspermus, but there are also a number of deviating obviously indigenous forms in need of further study.

[FTEA]

Violaceae, C. Grey-Wilson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb to 60 cm. tall, more rarely subshrubby to 3 m.; stems simple or moderately branched, subglabrous to densely pubescent, often becoming glabrescent, ± terete or ridged.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile to subsessile; lamina linear to linear-lanceolate, oblanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 0.5–8 cm. long, 0.1–1.4 cm. wide, the base cuneate, the apex acute to subobtuse, glabrous to densely pubescent, hirsute or scabrid, margin subentire to crenate-serrate or dentate-serrate, lateral veins 4–7 pairs; stipules linear-lanceolate to subulate, 1.5–4 mm. long, margin ciliate usually.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, pink, reddish violet, mauve, blue, orange-red, white or bico-loured; pedicels slender, 6–21 mm. long, with a pair of small subulate bracteoles, up to 2 mm. long, in the upper half, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate, subequal, 2.5–4 mm. long, acute, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals very unequal; upper 2 elliptical, 3–5.5 mm. long, symmetric, acuminate; lateral 2 triangular-oblong, 4–6 mm. long, often rather expanded at the apex and obtuse; lower petal (lip) suborbicular to subcordate, 8–19 mm. long, with a claw exceeding the calyx and including a short obtuse spur.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens much shorter than the lateral petals, the lower 2 with longer filaments which bear pilose spur-appendages; anthers each with a short ovate connective-appendage.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose, glabrous; style slightly exceeding the anthers and thickened towards the tip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 5–8 mm. long, 3-lobed, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid-ellipsoidal, ±1.5 mm. long, longitudinally ribbed.

[FWTA]

Violaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Erect, often much branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers lilac or bluish.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Comoros

Afrohybanthus enneaspermus (L.) Flicker appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Schlechter [12140], Mozambique Hybanthus suffruticosus K000231107
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4020] Ionidium wightiana K001117951
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1438] Ionidium enneaspermum K001113105
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1438] Ionidium enneaspermum K001113103
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1438] Ionidium enneaspermum K001113104
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1439] Ionidium suffruticosum K001113109
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1439] Ionidium suffruticosum K001113110
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1439] Ionidium suffruticosum K001113108
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1439] Ionidium suffruticosum K001113111
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1439] Ionidium suffruticosum K001113106
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1439] Ionidium suffruticosum K001113107
Oct 15, 2008 Crawford, F. [54], Namibia Hybanthus enneaspermus K000450328
Jun 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [10410], Cameroon Hybanthus enneaspermus K000026797
Jul 15, 1969 unknown [26], Socotra Hybanthus enneaspermus K000231116
Jan 1, 1960 Olorunfemi, J. [FHI 30652], Cameroon Hybanthus enneaspermus K000105818
Hohenacker, R.F.?, India Hybanthus enneaspermus K000327685 Unknown type material
Maitland, T.D. [1703], Cameroon Hybanthus enneaspermus K000105817

First published in Phytotaxa 230: 47 (2015)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (2018). Flora of Thailand 14(1): 1-184. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2014-continuously updated). Atlas of Living Australia http://www.ala.org.au/.
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  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
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  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
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Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/