Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm.

First published in A.Rees, Cycl. 16: n.° 4 (1810)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Pakistan to China (S. Yunnan) and N. Indo-China. It is a tree and grows primarly in the seasonally dry tropical biome(s). It is used as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Belize, Benin, Borneo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Gambia, Guatemala, Malaya, Mexico Southeast, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Peru, Philippines, Sudan, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae). Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • de Kok, R. (2012). A revision of the genus Gmelina (Lamiaceae). Kew Bulletin 67: 293-329.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Species Profiles

  • Economic potential of the rainforests (Kew factsheet).
  • Lamb, A.F.A. (Comp.) (1978). Fast-growing timber trees of the lowland tropics: No.1. Gmelina arborea. University of Oxford, Commonwealth Forestry Institute.
  • Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (1993). Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1): Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Tewari, D.N. (1995). A monograph on GAMARI ( Gmelina arborea Roxb.). Dehra Dun: International Book Distributors. 125p.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Biegel, Check-list Ornam. Pl. Rhod. Parks & Gard. [Rhodesia Agric. J., Research Report No. 3]: 58 (1977).
  • Bothalia 10 , 3: 496 (1971).
  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 2 (1992).
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 432 (1963).
  • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 300 (1972).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 390 (1983).
  • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • de Kok, R. (2012). A revision of the genus Gmelina (Lamiaceae). Kew Bulletin 67: 293-329.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2010 Julin [100596], Malaysia K000755779 No
Jan 1, 2010 Kadir [A50], Malaysia K000755776 No
Jan 1, 2010 Gaerlan, F. [2606], Philippines K000755946 No
Jan 1, 2010 Harvey [9930], Malaysia K000755775 No
Jan 1, 2010 Kok, R. de [147214], Malaysia K000755777 No
Jan 1, 2010 Ambri [W98], Indonesia K000755774 No
Jan 1, 2010 Loh, H.S. [21564], Malaysia K000755730 No
Jan 1, 2010 Kadir [A971], Malaysia K000755780 No
Jan 1, 2010 Chai, P. [29349], Malaysia K000755773 No
Jan 1, 2010 Puasa [9937], Malaysia K000755781 No
Jan 1, 2010 Putz, F. [021976], Malaysia K000755728 No
Jan 1, 2010 Garrick, J. [1511], Malaysia K000755729 No
Jan 1, 2010 Pelayak, J. [100594], Malaysia K000755778 No
Jan 1, 2010 Sylva, E.R. de [10806], Malaysia K000755731 No
Jan 1, 1990 Mattos Silva, L.A. [2688], Bahia K000013911 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114279 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114276 Yes
Noton, E. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114277 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114284 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114280 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114283 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114281 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114278 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114282 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0