Family:
Araceae Juss.

Thaumatophyllum bipinnatifidum (Schott ex Endl.) Sakur., Calazans & Mayo

This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Bolivia to SE. & S. Brazil and NE. Argentina. It is used as a poison and a medicine and has environmental uses.

[UPFC]
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, artificial - terrestrial.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Distribution
SE. & S. Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, ? Bolivia.
Habitat
Hemi-epiphytic or terrestrial in rainforest, gallery forests, and various seasonal forest types including cerrado; terrestrial or rooted-aquatic in open swampy areas, occasionally rupicolous in open shrubby coastal and submontane vegetation.
General Description
STEM: erect, decumbent and sprwaling or semi-erect, branching sparingly in basal parts, up to 3.5m tall, 5 – 13 cm diam.; adventitious roots dimorphicin epiphytic plants, anchor roots of smaller diam. attaching plant to host tree, feeder roots of larger diam. connecting stem to soil; internodes 1 mm long or less; prophyll scars short, up to about 1 cm long; intravaginal squamules sometimes absent, up to 20 mm long, 0.5 - 2.5 mm wide at base, usually triangular and ± flattened sometimes rather massive and conic, patent, sparse to densely abundant and persistent; foliage leaf scars 4 - 6 cm long, 3 - 7 cm wide, circular to transverse-elliptic, paler than rest of stem surface. LEAF: prophyll deciduous, up to at least 45 cm long; petiole 70 - 120( - 150) cm long, (0.7 -)1 - 1.7 cm diam. at apex, broadly sulcate adaxially with sharply angled margins or flattened or occasionally slightly convex, rounded abaxially, sheath c. 12 cm long on leaves subtending inflorescences; leaf blade usually bipinnatifid, either weakly or very strongly so, occasionally pinnatifid, very variable in lobe and sinus shape, broadly cordiform-sagittate in outline, overall length 75- 120 cm, overall width 60 - 120 cm, upper surface glossy dark green, lower surface paler, ± glossy; anterior division 45- 83 cm long, (25- )50 - 100 cm wide at base, apical lobe acute-acuminate to rounded-apiculate, often oblique, longer or shorter than adjacent primary lateral lobes, primary lateral lobes (5- ) 6 - 9 ( - 10) per side, basal primary lateral lobes (12 - )17 - 35( - 55) cm long, 4- 22 cm wide at widest point, outline linear to spathulate, apex ± triangular with tip acute-acuminate to rounded, margins normally lobed, sometimes very strongly so, rarely repand or ± entire, acroscopic secondary lobes (1 - )2 - 5, usually longer and more numerous than basiscopic ones, basiscopic secondary lobes 0 - 5, the longest (0.8 -)3- 17 cm long, midveins usually present, main sinuses of basal primary lateral lobes ending 1.5- 10 cm from midrib, 0.4 - 5 cm wide near sinus apex, primary lateral veins as many as primary lateral lobes, arising at an angle of 30 - 90 deg., concolorous with blade on upper surface, whitish-green and often pink- or peach-tinged on lower surface; posterior divisions 27 - 40 cm long, 0.29 - 0.41 x overall blade length, 30 - 37( -60) cm wide, basal ribs denuded for 2 - 6 cm, primary acroscopic lobes 2 - 6, the longest 18 - 35 cm long, usually fewer than primary basiscopic lobes, secondary lobes usually present, primary basiscopic lobes (3- )4 - 7( - 8), longest 9 - 23 (-37) cm long, secondary lobes rarely developed. INFLORESCENCE: normally solitary, rarely in pairs; peduncle 5- 10 cm long, (1.5-) 2 - 5 cm diam. at apex, green; spathe (12 - )16 - 33 cm long, (2 - )3- 5.5 (- 6.5) cm diam. at middle, recurrent for 3 - 6.5 (- 8.5) cm, somewhat constricted centrally at anthesis, outer surface of basal half green, maroon-purple or chocolate brown, apical half paler, greener or more yellowish, sometimes with resolute margins when expanded at anthesis, inner surface of spathe entirely creamy white, rarely purple to rose-tinged in inflorescences which are strongly pigmented on outer surface; spadix 15 - 25( - 28.5) cm long overall, fertile male zone (3 - )6 - 8.5( - 9) cm long, (1.5- )2 - 2.7(- 3.2) cm diam. , ellipsoid to cylindric, apex acute to rounded, white, sterile male zone longer and thicker than fertile male zone, (5. 5 - )6.5 - 11( - 14.5) cm long, (1.5 - )2 - 3(- 3.2) cm diam. near apex, increasing gradually to (2 - )2.5 - 3.7( - 4) cm diam. near base, white, female zone (2.8 -)3 - 5( - 5.7) cm long, (1.7 - )2 - 3.3(- 4.) cm diam., tapering upwards, adnate dorsally to spathe for 1/2 to 3/4 of length. Flowers: stamens 5 - 5.5( - 6.5) mm long, 0.8 - 1.2 mm wide at apex, staminodes 2 - 6 mm long, 1-2 mm wide at apex, mostly prismatic in transverse section, cylindric to cyanate, truncate at apex, in basal part of sterile zone usually tortoise and longer than the rest; gynoecium 3.8 - 7.5 mm long, ovary 2 - 3.7 mm diam., cylindric to somewhat barrel-shaped, occasionally with rawhide cells in axial region, locales (6 - )7 - 13( - 15) per ovary, ovules (1 - )2 - 4( - 6) per locale, evenly spread on locule axis from base to above middle or even to near apex, style body usually present, as wide as or distinctly narrower than ovary and style crown, sometimes lacking, raphide cells abundant, sparse or absent in axial region around stylar canals, compitum varying from extremely shallow to penetrating deeply into ovary axis, style crown strongly lobed, style lobes tanniniferous or not, central dome varying from absent to very well developed and itself lobed, the lobes naked and projecting beyond stigma hairs, stigma 2 - 3.8 mm wide, entirely covering style crown lobes or absent from their dorsal sides, contiguous with adjacent stigmas, tannin hairs varying from absent to abundant. INFRUCTESCENCE: berries 1.4 cm long, 0.7 - 0.8 cm wide, ± cylindric, white or yellow when ripe, with edible, sweet-tasting pulp; seeds 3.5 - 4 mm long, 1.7 - 1.8 mm diam., subcylindric, slightly broader at micropylar end, either sarcotestate with non-arillate funicle or lacking a sarcotesta and with an arillate funicle and raphe, funicle sometimes bearing a blob of sticky mucilaginous material in ripe seed.

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[CATE]
Use
P. bipinnatifidum is an important plant in indigenous cultures in Paraguay, northern Argentina and probably Brazil. In a fine paper, Crisci & Gancedo (1971) discuss the use of the roots for binding and the berries as a sweet food and medicinal source. Peckolt & Peckolt (1890) describe its medicinal properties under the names P. bipinnatifidum and P. selloum.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay

Introduced into:

Belize, Comoros

Thaumatophyllum bipinnatifidum (Schott ex Endl.) Sakur., Calazans & Mayo appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 1986 Mayo, S.J. [Phil. 3], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183384 Yes
May 1, 1986 s.coll. [s.n.] Philodendron bipinnatifidum K000950228 Unknown type material Yes
Philodendron bipinnatifidum 18911.000 No
Mayo, S. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.416 No
Mayo, S. [581], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.420 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.421 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.423 No
Mayo, S. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.425 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.426 No
Mayo, S.J. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.450 No
Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.451 No
Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.614 No
Mayo et al, Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.783 No
Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.785 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 44905.000 No
Mayo, S., Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 44909.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46273.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46276.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46279.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46280.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46281.000 No
Mayo, S. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46324.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46325.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46331.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46333.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46334.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46335.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46337.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46338.000 No
Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46373.000 No
Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 49384.000 No
Mayo, S.J. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 49385.000 No
Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 49959.000 No
Mayo [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 58017.000 No
Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 58053.000 No
Mayo [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 58914.000 No
Mayo [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59023.000 No
Mayo [177] Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59070.000 No
Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59072.000 No
Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59086.000 No
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183410 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183386 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16498], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183377 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [s.n.], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183373 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183409 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [17322], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183376 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [3041], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183400 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [589], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183393 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183404 Yes
Temponi, L.G. [410], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183389 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [4933], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183396 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183405 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16499], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183378 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183406 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183401 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [589], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183392 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [17322], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183375 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [589], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183391 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16499], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183379 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [17322], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183374 Yes
Temponi, L.G. [410], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183387 Yes
s.coll. [A933] Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183395 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [7290], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183398 Yes
Marx, B. [PHIL/3], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183383 Yes
Temponi, L.G. [410], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183390 Yes
Marx, B. [PHIL 3], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183385 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [4933], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183397 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [7290], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183399 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [s.n.], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183372 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183411 Yes
Zappi, D.C. [2102], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183382 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16499], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183380 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183403 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183408 Yes
Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183407 Yes

First published in PhytoKeys 98: 60 (2018)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6. Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America. Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0