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This species is accepted, and its native range is Angola.

[KBu]

Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1. Kew Bulletin 74: 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-018-9791-0

Conservation
This species is considered likely to be globally scarce, as it is known from only a single collection and has not been recorded for almost 100 years, despite having large, showy flowers. The Longa River flows into the Atlantic Ocean between Luanda and Lobito; there has been considerable loss of natural habitat in this heavily populated coastal zone and this is likely to have impacted the Euphorbia conspicua woodland and thicket in some areas. However, it is unclear as to where exactly on the Longa River Gossweiler collected his specimen. With so little information on its range, exact habitat requirements and threats, this species must be considered Data Deficient — DD at present, but it may well prove to be globally threatened.
Distribution
Endemic to western Angola (Bengo Prov.) and known only from the type.
Ecology
The single collection of Barleria calole was recorded from Euphorbia conspicua thicket of coastal, central Angola. The elevation was not recorded but the general area of the collection is at low altitude. Lebrun & Stork (2006) note that E. conspicua occurs in coastal areas about 3 km inland, between Ambriz and Benguela, especially around Luanda.
Morphology General Habit
Spiny suffruticose subshrub, 80 cm tall; stems 4-ridged and -angular when young, at first dark brown but mature stems with pale grey epidermis giving a somewhat glaucous appearance, glabrous except for strigose nodal line
Morphology General Spines
Axillary spines harsh, white or pale brown, subsessile, usually 2-rayed but some with 2 long and 1 – 2 short rays, longest ray 14 – 25 mm long, straight
Morphology Leaves
Leaves on petiole to 7 mm long; blade chartaceous, narrowly oblong-elliptic or somewhat oblanceolate, 6.5 – 9.5 × 1.8 – 2.8 cm (l:w ratio 2.4 – 4:1), base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute to obtuse (immature leaves rounded), with a prominent spine-tip; margin and midrib beneath sparsely pale-strigose or glabrescent, with few broad sessile glands towards base beneath; lateral veins 4 – 5 pairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted in distal half of corolla tube; filaments 28 – 30 mm long, sparsely and minutely hairy towards base; anthers exserted, 4.2 – 4.5 mm long; lateral staminodes 2.5 – 3 mm long, filaments pubescent, antherodes 0.7 – 1.2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx hidden within bracts, brown; anterior and posterior lobes subequal, broadly ovate, 6 – 7 × 4 – 4.5 mm, base obtuse, margin entire, apex ± abruptly narrowed into a short acumen 0.3 – 0.7 mm long and often bifid on anterior lobe, 0.7 – 1.7 mm long and linear on posterior lobe, external surfaces puberulous and with scattered broad sessile glands, venation inconspicuous; lateral lobes lanceolate, 4.5 – 5 mm long, shortly acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, 47 – 51 mm long, glabrous externally except for few short inconspicuous hairs on fused portion beyond abaxial lobe; tube cylindrical, 18 – 19 mm long; limb in marked “4+1” configuration; abaxial lobe offset from remaining lobes by 12.5 – 15 mm, narrowly oblong, 17.5 – 18 × 5.5 – 6.5 mm, apex acute; lateral lobes broadly obovate, 16 – 18 × 11 – 12.5 mm, apices rounded and with a minute apiculum; adaxial lobes as lateral lobes but 8 – 8.5 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistil glabrous; stigma linear, 1 – 1.2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, short strobilate spikes 2.5 – 3.5 cm long, each cymule single-flowered, sessile; rachis bifariously puberulous; bracts highly modified from leaves, drying dark brown, basal-most pair of bracts in spike oblong, 22 – 27.5 × 7 – 9 mm, all other bracts ovate, 17 – 19 × 8.5 – 12 mm, base rounded and abruptly narrowed, apex acuminate into a prominent stiff spine up to 4.5 mm long, external surface pale-strigose on margin, midrib and sparsely on main veins, often with few scattered broad sessile glands; bracteoles whitish with darker midrib, linear-lanceolate, 7 – 8 × 1 – 1.5 mm, acuminate into a flexuose spine, margin entire
Note
The epithet “calole” denotes the local vernacular name for this species, as recorded by Gossweiler 8268 (on K001009530): “calole is the native name”. Despite the major range disjunction, there is little doubt that this species is closely allied to Barleria trispinosa from northeast Africa and Arabia. They share contracted, strobilate terminal inflorescences, small ovate calyces which are puberulous and with broad sessile glands, and large corollas that are largely glabrous. They are most easily separated by the more marked differentiation between the leaves and bracts in B. calole, both in terms of shape and texture. Barleria trispinosa has rather variably shaped bracts, ranging from elliptic to ovate or obovate, but in those plants that have ovate bracts similar in shape to B. calole, the leaves are also proportionately broader and ovate or at most elliptic, not narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate as in B. calole. Barleria calole resembles Barleria trispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl but differs in having much more clearly differentiated bracts (broadly ovate) from the leaves (narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate), in the bracts being more chartaceous with less prominent lateral veins and with longer, more conspicuous strigose hairs along the midrib and margin, and in having more membranous calyces.
Type
Angola, Quissama Country, Rio Longa, fl. 10 June 1921, Gossweiler 8268 (holotype BM! [BM001010584]; isotypes K! [K0010095239, K001009530]).

Native to:

Angola

Barleria calole I.Darbysh. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 74(1)-5: 71 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0