Zanthoxylum asiaticum (L.) Appelhans, Groppo & J.Wen

First published in Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 126: 43 (2018)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Ethiopia to Eswatini, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia. It is a scrambling shrub or tree and grows primarily in the subtropical biome.


Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Burundi, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe


Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms


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POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.
  • Mao, A.A. & Dash, S.S. (2020). Flowering Plants of India an Annotated Checklist (Dicotyledons) 1: 1-970. Botanical Survey of India.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1979). Flore des Mascareignes 64-68: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1985). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 5: 1-476. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pasha, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Cuming, H. [1070] Philippines Toddalia ambigua K000717708 Unknown Type Material Yes
Cuming, H. [1070] Philippines Toddalia ambigua K000717706 Unknown Type Material Yes
Loher, A. [238] Philippines Toddalia ambigua K000717707 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 9042] Toddalia aculeata K001132131 Unknown Type Material Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1206] Nepal Zanthoxylum floribundum K001112416 Unknown Type Material Yes
Cuming, H. [483] Philippines Toddalia effusa K000717704 Unknown Type Material Yes
Cuming, H. [483] Philippines Toddalia effusa K000717705 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jun 30, 2010 Sibundo, A., S. [1] Mozambique Toddalia asiatica K000546041 No
Patel, H. [31A] Mozambique Toddalia asiatica K001417351 Yes
Mamba, A.; Banze, A.; Datizua, C.; Osborne, J.; Mucaleque, P.; Rachide, T.; Ndala, B. (guide); Magido, A. (guide) [AM60] Mozambique Toddalia asiatica K001346855 No
Rakotoarinivo, M.; Ralimanana, H.; Rajaonarison, R. [RMJ 410] Madagascar Toddalia asiatica K000952551 Yes
Harris, T. [71] Mozambique Toddalia asiatica K000545063 No
Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.] India Toddalia asiatica K000717710 Unknown Type Material Yes
Ash, J. [1354] Ethiopia Toddalia asiatica K:SPC-35671.000 No
Patel, H. [7424] Mozambique Toddalia asiatica K000614041 No
Verdcourt, B. [2970 A] Kenya Toddalia asiatica K:SPC-24455.000 No


  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants.
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants.
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