Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil (Bahia).
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[KBu]

Espírito Santo, F., Rapini, A., Ribeiro, P.L. et al. (2019). Phylogeny of the tribe Marsdenieae (Apocynaceae), reinstatement of Ruehssia and the taxonomic treatment of the genus in Brazil. Kew Bulletin 74: 30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-019-9807-4

Conservation
Ruehssia breviramosa is known only from the type locality, whose population is composed of less than 15 individuals. The close association of the species with karst environments suggests a small area of occupation and great fragmentation within its distribution, reasons that led Rapini & Fontella-Pereira (2011) to assess it as Vulnerable: VU B1ab(iii) + 2ab(iii) + D2.
Distribution
Brazil, Carinhanha, state of Bahia.
Ecology
Heliophyte, occurring directly on exposed rocks of limestone outcrops in a karst landscape surrounded by seasonally dry forests.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs erect, up to 1.5 m tall; stems puberulent when young, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves often arranged at the apex of short branches (brachyblasts), sessile; lamina 0.36 – 0.85 × 0.05 – 0.15 cm, filiform, base frequently with sparse trichomes, adaxially with 2 – 6 colleters at the base of the main vein, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 1.77 – 2 × 0.72 – 0.9 mm, oblong, apex obtuse to rounded, margins not ciliate, abaxially glabrous or with sparse trichomes at the base, adaxially with c. 15 colleters at the base of the calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla shortly campanulate, greenish-cream, abaxially glabrous, adaxially with 5 rows of trichomes, villous on the throat, glabrous along the lobes; tube 1.52 – 1.91 × 1.1 – 1.8 mm, lobes 2.1 – 2.4 × 1.3 – 1.7 mm, oblong to ovate, recurved, apex irregularly emarginate, margins not ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona lobes 0.7 – 0.79 × 0.09 – 0.17 mm, narrowly triangular, basally fused to the anther, exceeding the style-head
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium c. 1.1 mm high, shortly stipitate (stipe c. 0.8 mm high), inserted to slightly exserted from the corolla tube; style-head c. 0.4 × 0.7 mm, depressed-conical; anthers c. 0.2 × 0.08 mm, apical membranous appendix 0.66 – 0.75 × 0.64 – 0.69 mm, deltoid; corpusculum 0.19 – 0.22 × 0.03 – 0.04 mm, narrowly oblong to linear, apex rounded, straight; caudicles 0.16 – 0.17 mm, distally plicate; pollinia 0.2 – 0.25 × 0.09 – 0.13 mm, obovoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles c. 11.3 × 1.6 cm, ellipsoid, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences fasciculate, 1 – 6 flowers; peduncle up to 0.2 cm long, pubescent; bracts 0.42 – 0.91 × 0.3 – 0.5 mm, narrowly triangular to ovate, margins not ciliate; pedicels 1.3 – 2.8 mm long, pubescent
Note
Ruehssia breviramosa is characterised by the erect, shrubby habit, sessile, filiform leaves, usually arranged in brachyblasts, oblong sepals, greenish-cream, adaxially 5-bearded, shortly campanulate corolla, with glabrous lobes, and narrowly triangular free corona lobes. Due to the shrubby habit and occurrence restricted to calcareous outcrops, R. breviramosa seems to be closely related to R. calcaria, R. phallica and R. zehntneri, which are also shrubs from limestone, but is readily distinguished from them by the filiform leaves and narrowly triangular corona lobes.
Phenology
Collected with flowers and fruits in January.
Type
Brazil, Bahia, Carinhanha, Rapini et al. 1477 (holotype HUEFS!; isotypes HUEFS!, IAN!, K!, MBM!, MO!, NY!, RB!, SPF!, UB!).

[KBu]

Rapini, A. & Pereira, J.F. Kew Bull (2011) 66: 137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-011-9262-3

Conservation
Despite occurring in an area that remains poorly explored in floristc studies and being known only by the type collection, Marsdeniabreviramosa seems to show a pattern found in species closely associated with limestone. This indirect assessment suggests that this species has a small area of occupancy, with its population severely fragmented in a small extent of occurrence (possibly smaller than that of Allamanda calcicola; Souza-Silva & Rapini 2009). Based on this indirect evidence and considering that western Bahia is quickly losing its natural vegetation to agriculture and pasture, the species should be classified as Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)+B2ab(iii)+D2] following the catgories and criteria of IUCN (2001).
Distribution
Brazil: south-western Bahia, in Serra do Ramalho.
Ecology
Marsdeniabreviramosa was found emerging from deep crevices of rocks in an open calcareous outcrop; 585 m. The few specimens (around 10) were isolated in a small area also marked by the presence of Allamanda calcicola, another species of Apocynaceae endemic to this calcareous region of the São Francisco River Basin.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub erect, c. 1.5 m high; stems puberulent to glabrescent, the older ones with papery bark, latex white
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, often several arranged in short branches, sessile, filiform, 4.5 – 8.5 cm × c. 0.5 mm, glabrous or almost so
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers: pedicels 1.5 – 3 mm long, puberulent; calyx almost glabrous; sepals oblong, 1.8 – 2.1 × 0.7 – 0.9 mm; axillary colleters finger-like, c. 0.34 × 0.18 mm; corolla greenish-cream, funnel-shaped, constricted at the mouth, fused to the gynostegium along its basal half, glabrous abaxially, barbellate adaxially at the base of lobes; corolla tube 1.5 – 1.9 mm long, 0.9 – 1.1 mm wide at the basal half, 1.5 – 1.9 mm wide at the apical half; corolla lobes oblong to ovate, 2.2 – 2.5 × 1.25 – 1.5 mm, emarginate, erect to recurved; corona 5-lobed, lobes linear, 0.75 – 0.8 × 0.08 – 0.1 mm, incurved, membranous, almost as long as the gynostegium; anthers with subcuneate, denticulate lateral wings and ligulate apical membranous appendix; corpusculum narrowly oblong, 0.21 – 0.24 × 0.04 – 0.05 mm; caudicles 0.14 – 0.16 mm long, horizontal, distally plicate; pollinia obovoid to obdacrioid, 0.21 – 0.25 × 0.07 – 0.12 mm; style-head shortly mammilate at the apex, included within the corolla tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicle ellipsoid, c. 11.5 cm long, apex acuminate, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences fasciculate, 1 – 6 flowers; bracts c. 0.85 × 0.3 mm, narrowly triangular
Note
Marsdenia breviramosa is distinguished from the other Brazilian species of the genus by its filiform leaves, which are arranged in short branches forming brachyblasts. It is possibly related to M. zehntneri Fontella, another shrubby species associated with calcareous outcrops in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Goiás. In M. zehntneri the leaves are narrowly elliptic, much larger (more than 2 mm vs. c. 0.5 mm wide in M. breviramosa), and the flowers are two times larger (corolla more than 1 cm vs. less than 0.5 cm long in this species). The species was collected with flowers and an open, dry fruit in January.
Type
Typus: Brazil, Bahia, Carinhanha, Rapini et al. 1477 (holotypusHUEFS!; isotypi BHCB!, CTES!, HUEFS!, IAN!, K!, MBM!, MO!, NY!, P!, R!, RB!, SPF!, UB!).

Native to:

Brazil Northeast

Ruehssia breviramosa (Rapini & Fontella) F.Esp.Santo & Rapini appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2011 Rapini, A. [1477], Brazil Marsdenia breviramosa K000543832 isotype

First published in Kew Bull. 74(2)-30: 20 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. (2011). Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial Conservation Assessment Tool. ZooKeys 150: 117 – 126.
  • Baillon, H. E. (1890). Histoire des plantes, Vol. 10. Libraire Hachette & Co, Paris.
  • Baldwin, B. G. & Markos, S. (1998). Phylogenetic utility of the external transcribed spacer (ETS) of 18S – 26S rDNA: congruence of ETS and ITS trees of Calycadenia (Compositae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 10: 449 – 463.
  • Barbosa Rodrigues, J. (1891). Eclogae plantarum novarum. Vellosia, ed. 2: 1 – 133.
  • Beardsley, P. M. & Olmstead, R. G. (2002). Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1093 – 1102.
  • Bentham, G. & Hooker, J. D. (1876). Genera plantarum, Vol. 2. Reeve & Co, London.
  • Brandegee, T. S. (1917). Plantae mexicanae purpusianae, VIII. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 363 – 375.
  • Bruyns, P. V. & Forster, P. I. (1991). Recircumscription of the Stapelieae (Asclepiadaceae). Taxon 40: 381 – 391.
  • Bullock, A. A. (1956). Notes on African Asclepiadaceae: VIII. Kew Bull. 11: 503 – 522.
  • Bullock, A. A. (1964). A new name in Asclepiadaceae. Kew Bull. 17: 487.
  • Decaisne, J. (1844). Asclepiadaceae. In: A. P. de Candolle (ed.), Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, Vol. 8: 490 – 665. Fortin, Masson & Cie, Paris.
  • Domingos-Melo, A., Nadia, T. L., Wiemerm, A. P., Cocucci, A. A. & Machado, I. C. (2019). Beyond taxonomy: anther skirt is a diagnostic character that provides specialized noctuid pollination in Marsdenia megalantha (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 305: 103 – 114.
  • Doyle, J. J. & Doyle, J. L. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull. 19: 11 – 15.
  • Dugand, A. (1952). Noticias botanicas Colombianas, XI. Mutisia 9: 1 – 8.
  • Dugand, A. (1966). Asclepiadaceae nuevas o interesantes de Colômbia y países vecinos. Caldasia 9: 399 – 456.
  • D’Arcy, W. G. (1970). Jacquin names, some notes on their typification. Taxon 19(4): 554 – 560.
  • Endress, M. E. & Bruyns, P. V. (2000). A revised classification of the Apocynaceae s.l. Bot. Rev. 66: 1 – 56.
  • Endress, M. E., Liede-Schumann, L. & Meve, U. (2014). An updated classification for Apocynaceae. Phytotaxa 159: 175 – 194.
  • Endress, M. E., Meve, U., Middleton, D. J. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2018). Apocynaceae. In: J. W. Kadereit & V. Bittrich (eds), Flowering plants. Eudicots. Apiales and Gentianales (except Rubiaceae), K. Kubitzki (ed.), Families and genera of vascular plants Vol. 15: 207 – 411. Springer, Cham.
  • Espírito Santo, F. S., Bitencourt, C., Ribeiro, P. L. & Rapini, A. (2018b). Two new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae) from limestone outcrops in Brazil. Willdenowia 48: 109 – 116.
  • Espírito Santo, F. S., Santos, A. P. B., Ribeiro, P. L. & Rapini, A. (2018a). Three new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae) from Brazil. Acta Bot. Brasil. 32: 247 – 253.
  • Espírito Santo, F. S., Sousa, D. J. L., Chagas, D. B., Morais, I. L., Ribeiro, P. L. & Rapini, A. (2018c). Four new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae) from the Cerrado Domain. Syst. Bot. 43: 571 – 578.
  • Fishbein, M., Livshultz, T., Straub, S. C. K., Simões, A. O., Boutte, J., McDonnell, A. & Foote, A. (2018). Evolution on the backbone: Apocynaceae phylogenomics and new perspectives on growth forms, flowers, and fruits. Amer. J. Bot. 105(3): 495 – 513.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Morillo, G. (1984). Asclepiadaceae Brasilienses, I. Novos tâxons e localidades em Asclepiadaceae. Bradea 4(12): 77 – 79.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Morillo, G. (1993). Asclepiadaceae brasilienses, X. Novas espécies em Blepharodon Decne. e Marsdenia R.Br. Acta Bot. Venez. 16(2 – 4): 73 – 77.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Morillo, G. (1996). Contribuição ao estudo das Asclepiadaceae brasileiras, XXVI. Um novo táxon do gênero Marsdenia R.Br. do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pabstia 7(4): 1 – 4.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Paixão, R. J. (1996). Pabstia 7(2): 1 – 3.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (1965). Contribuição ao estudo das Asclepiadaceae brasileiras, II. Sellowia 17: 61 – 76
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (1970). Contribuição ao estudo das Asclepiadaceae brasileiras, VI. Novas combinações e novos sinônimos. Loefgrenia 43: 1 – 3.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (1994). Estudos em Asclepiadaceae, XXIX. Espécies novas da caatinga e novas combinações em Petalostelma. Pabstia 5(1): 4 – 6.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (2002). Estudos em Asclepiadaceae XXX — uma nova espécie de Marsdenia. Bradea 8: 289 – 290.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J., Valente, M. C., Marquete, N. M. S. & Ichaso, C. L. F. (2004). Apocináceas-Asclepiadóideas. In: A. Reis (ed.), Flora ilustrada catarinense. Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues, Itajaí.
  • Fournier, E. (1885). Asclepiadaceae. In: C. F. P. Martius & A. W. Eichler (eds), Flora brasiliensis Vol. 6, pars 4: 189 – 332, tabs 50 – 98. Typographia Regia, Monachii.
  • Goyder, D. J. & Morillo, G. (1994). A new species of Marsdenia (Asclepiadaceae) from N.E. Brazil. Asklepios 63: 18 – 22; tab. 1 – 2.
  • Goyder, D. J. (2006). An overview of Asclepiad biogeography. In: S. A. Ghazanfar & H. J. Beentje (eds), Taxonomy and ecology of African plants, their conservation and sustainable use, pp. 205 – 214. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hemsley, W. B. (1904) Marsdenia imthurnii. Bot. Mag. 60 (1407 or sér. 3, 713): tab. 7953.
  • Hooker, W. J. (1826). Harrisonia loniceroides. Honey-suckle-like Harrisonia. Bot. Mag. 53: Tab. 2699.
  • Hooker, W. J. (1843). On Baxteria (of Mr. Brown), a new genus of plants from South Australia London. J. Bot. 2: 492 – 495.
  • Hooker, W. J. (1847). Marsdenia maculata. Spotted-leaved Marsdenia Bot. Mag. 73 (or sér. 3, 3): tab. 4299.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland & Cambridge.
  • IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (2016). Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.
  • Jacquin, N. J. (1760). Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum: 17. Theodorum Haak, Leiden.
  • Jacquin, N. J. (1763). Selectarum stirpium americanum historia, in qua ad linnaeanum systema determinatae descriptiaeque situntur plantae illiae, quas in insula Martinica, Jamaica, Domingo. Ex officina Krausian.
  • Juarez-Jaimes, V. & Saynes, A. (2015). A new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Pochutla Region in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. Novon 24: 27 – 30.
  • Jussieu, A. H. L. (1825). Mémoire sur le groupe des Rutacées. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 12: 384 – 542.
  • Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H. & Beck, S. G. (eds) (2014). Catálogo de plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 127: 1 – 1744.
  • Karsten, G. K. W. H. (1849). Ruehssia estebanensis, Ruehssia glauca, Ruehssia macrophylla, Ruehssia maculata, Ruehssia pubescens. Verh. Vereins. Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 19: 305.
  • Koch, I., Rapini, A., Kinoshita, L. S., Simões, A. O. & Spina, A. P. (2015). Apocynaceae. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. (http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB4681). Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.
  • Liede-Schumann, S., Rapini, A., Goyder, D. J. & Chase, M. W. (2005). Phylogenetics of the New World subtribes of Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae–Asclepiadoideae): Metastelmatinae, Oxypetalinae, and Gonolobinae. Syst. Bot. 30: 183 – 194.
  • Livshultz, T., Liede-Schumann, S., Meve, U., Wanntorp, L. & Forster, P. (2016). Phylogeny of Marsdenieae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) and the cirscumscription of Marsdenia R.Br. based on chloroplast and nuclear loci. 23 rd Symposium on Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology of the German Botanical Society. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich.
  • Livshultz, T., Mead, J. V., Goyder, D. J. & Brannin, M. (2011). Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution. Amer. J. Bot. 98: 1966 – 1977.
  • Malme, G. O. A. (1900). Die Asclepiadaceen des Regnell'schen Herbars. Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk-Akad. Handl. 34: 1 – 102.
  • Malme, G. O. A. (1936). Asclepiadaceae brasilienses novae vel minus bene cognitae. Ark. Bot. 28A(5): 1 – 28.
  • Meve, U. & Liede, S. (2004). Subtribal division of Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Taxon 53: 61 – 72.
  • Miller, M. A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010). Creating the CIPRES science gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans. Pp. 1 – 8.
  • Moore, S. M. (1895). The phanerogamic botany of the Matto Grosso Expedition, 1891-92. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 264 – 516 + pl. 21 – 39.
  • Morillo, G. N. & Carnevali, G. (1987). Marsdenia suberosa (Fourn.) Malme y sus afines. Ernstia 45: 1 – 10.
  • Morillo, G. N. & Spellman, D. L. (1976). Three new South American species of Marsdenia. Phytologia 33(1): 82 – 88.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1974a). Tres nuevas especies de Marsdenia. Acta Bot. Venez. 9: 311 – 316.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1974b). Novedades venezolanas en el género Marsdenia (Asclepiadaceae). Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 31: 113 – 116.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1977). Nuevas especies, nuevas combinaciones y nuevos nombres en la Asclepiadaceae suramericanas. Mem. Soc. Ci. Nat. La Salle 37(107): 119 – 127.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1978). El género Marsdenia em Venezuela, Colombia y Ecuador. Acta Bot. Venez. 13: 23 – 76.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1987). Notas sobre Marsdenia R.Br. en el Neotropico. Ernstia 43: 18 – 26.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1993). Nuevos taxones sudamericanos en el genero Marsdenia R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae). Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 51: 55 – 63.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1998). Notas sobre el genero Marsdenia R. Br. en el neotrópico. Ernstia, ser. 2, 8(1): 3 – 8.
  • Nylander, J. A. (2004). MrModeltest v.2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
  • Ollerton, J., Liede-Schumann, S., Endress, M. E., Meve, U., Rech, A. R., Shuttleworth, A., Keller, H. A., Fishbein, M., Alvarado-Cárdenas, L. O., Amorim, F. W., Bernhardt, P., Celep, F., Chirango, Y., Chiriboga-Arroyo, F., Civeyrel, L., Cocucci, A., Cranmer, L., Silva-Batista, I. C., Jager, L., Deprá, M. S., Domingos-Melo, A., Dvorsky, C., Agostini, K., Freitas, L., Gaglianone, M. C., Galetto, L., Gilbert, M., González-Ramírez, I., Gorostiague, P., Goyder, D., Hachuy-Filho, L., Heiduk, A., Howard, A., Ionta, G., Islas-Hernández, S. C., Johnson, S. D., Joubert, L., Kaiser-Bunbury, C. N., Kephart, S., Kidyoo, A., Koptur, S., Koschnitzke, C., Lamborn, E., Livshultz, T., Machado, I. C., Marino, S., Mema, L., Mochizuki, K., Morellato, L. P. C., Mrisha, C. K., Muiruri, E. W., Nakahama, N., Nascimento, V. T., Nuttman, C., Oliveira, P. E., Peter, C. I., Punekar, S., Rafferty, N., Rapini, A., Ren, Z.-X., Rodríguez-Flores, C. I., Rosero, L., Sakai, S., Sazima, M., Steenhuisen, S.-L., Tan, C.-W., Torres, C., Trøjelsgaard, K., Ushimaru, A., Vieira, M. F., Wiemer, A. P., Yamashiro, T., Nadia, T., Queiroz, J. & Quirino, Z. (2019). The diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large plant clades: Apocynaceae as a case study. Ann. Bot. 123: 311 – 325.
  • Omlor, R. (1998). Generische Revision der Marsdenieae (Asclepiadaceae). Diss. Universität Kaiserslautem. Shaker Verlag, Aachen.
  • Pessoa, C. R. M., Riet-Correa, F., Medeiros, R. M. T., Simões, S. V. D. & Rapini, A. (2011). Poisoning by Marsdenia hilariana and Marsdenia megalantha (Apocynaceae) in ruminants. Toxicon 58: 610 – 613.
  • Pugliesi, L. & Rapini, A. (2015). Tropical refuges with exceptionally high phylogenetic diversity reveal contrasting phylogenetic structures. Int. J. Biodiversity 7: ID 758019.
  • Rapini, A. & Fontella-Pereira, J. F. (2011). Two new species of Marsdenia R. Br. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from the semi-arid region of Brazil. Kew Bull. 66: 137 – 142.
  • Rapini, A. (2012). Taxonomy “under construction”: advances in the systematics of Apocynaceae, with emphasis on the Brazilian Asclepiadoideae. Rodriguésia 63(1): 75 – 88.
  • Rapini, A., Berg, C. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2007). Diversification of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) in the New World. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 407 – 422.
  • Rapini, A., Chase, M. W., Goyder, D. J. & Griffiths, J. (2003). Asclepiadeae classification: evaluating the phylogenetic relationships of New World Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae). Taxon 52: 33 – 50.
  • Rapini, A., Goyder, D. J., Espírito Santo, F. S., Fontella-Pereira, J., Ribeiro, P. L. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2018). (2657) Proposal to conserve the name Telosma against Stephanotella (Apocynaceae). Taxon 67: 1217 – 1218.
  • Rapini, A., Mello-Silva, R. & Kawasaki, M. L. (2001). Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) da Cadeia do Espinhaço de Minas Gerais. Brasil. Bol. Bot. Univ. São Paulo 19: 55 – 169.
  • Rapini, A., Silva, R. F. S. & Sampaio, L. N. P. (2009). Apocynaceae. In: A. M. Giulietti, A. Rapini, M. J. G. Andrade, L. P. Queiroz & J. M. C. Silva (orgs), Plantas raras do Brasil, pp. 54 – 64. Conservação internacional, Belo Horizonte.
  • Reichenbach, H. G. L. (1828). Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis, pp. 131. Carolum Cnobloch, Lipsiae.
  • Ribeiro, P. L., Rapini, A., Damascena, L. S. & Berg, C. (2014). Plant diversification in the Espinhaço Range: insights from the biogeography of Minaria (Apocynaceae). Taxon 6: 1253 – 1264.
  • Ribeiro, P. L., Rapini, A., Silva, U. C. S. & Berg, C. (2012). Using multiple analytical methods to improve phylogenetic hypotheses in Minaria (Apocynaceae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 65: 915 – 925.
  • Roemer, J. A. & Schultes, J. J. (1820). Systema Vegetabilium 6. J. G. Cottae, Stuttgartiae
  • Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., Mark, P., Ayres, D. L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M. A. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2012). MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Syst. Biol. 61: 539 – 542.
  • Rothe, W. (1915). Über die Gattung Marsdenia R. Br. und die Stammpflanze der Condurango-rinde. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 52: 354 – 434.
  • Rusby, H. H. (1920). Descriptions of three hundred new species of South American plants. Henry Hurd Rusby, New York.
  • Santos, R. G. P. (2013). Estudo taxonômico das Asclepiadeae e Marsdenieae (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. M.Sc. diss. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Schlechtendal, D. F. L. (1853) [1855]. Plantae Wagenerianae Columbicae. Linnaea 26: 127 – 144; 631 – 674.
  • Schumann, K. (1898). Asclepiadaceae. In: I. Urban (ed.), Plantae novae americanae imprimis Glaziovianae II. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (Beibl. 60): 19 – 23.
  • Shaw, J., Lickey, E. B., Beck, J. T., Farmer, S. B., Liu, W., Miller, J., Siripun, K. C., Winder, C. T., Schilling, E. E. & Small, R. L. (2005). The tortoise and the hare. II. Relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 142 – 166.
  • Shaw, J., Lickey, E. B., Schilling, E. & Small, R. (2007). Comparison of whole chloroplast genome sequences to choose noncoding regions for phylogenetic studies in angiosperms: the tortoise and the hare III. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 275 – 288.
  • Spellman, D. L. & Morillo, G. (1976). New names and combinations in Asclepiadaceae. Phytologia 34: 152.
  • Steudel, E. G. (1841). Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1. J. G. Cottae, Stuttgartiae et Tubingae.
  • Stevens, W. D. (2009). Apocynaceae. In: G. Davidse, M. Sousa, S. Knapp. & F. Chiang (eds), Flora Mesoamericana Vol. 4: 733 – 741. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.; Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis; The Natural History Museum, London.
  • Sun, Y., Skinner, D. Z., Liang, G. H. & Hulbert, S. H. (1994). Phylogenetic analysis of Sorghum and related taxa using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 89: 26 – 32.
  • Swarupanandan, K., Mangaly, J. K., Sonny, T. K., Kishorekumar, K. & Basha, S. C. (1996). The subfamilial and tribal classification of the family Asclepiadaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 120: 327 – 369.
  • Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G. & Bouvet, J. (1991). Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Pl. Molec. Biol. 17: 1105 – 1109.
  • Viana, P. L., Mota, N. F. O., Gil, A. S. B., Salino, A., Zappi, D. C., Harley, R. M., Ilkiu-Borges, A. L., Secco, R. S., Almeida, T. E., Watanabe, M. T. C., Santos, J. U. M., Trovó, M., Maurity, C. & Giulietti, A. M. (2016). Flora of the cangas of the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil: history, study area and methodology. Rodriguésia 67: 1107 – 1124.
  • Wanntorp, L. & Forster, P. I. (2007). Phylogenetic relationships between Hoya and the monotypic genera Madangia, Absolmsia, and Micholitzia (Apocynaceae, Marsdenieae): insights from flower morphology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94(1): 36 – 55.
  • Wanntorp, L., Gotthardt, K. & Muellner, A. N. (2011). Revisiting the wax plants (Hoya, Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae): phylogenetic tree using the chloroplast markers matK gene and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer. Taxon 60: 4 – 14.
  • White, T. J., Bruns, T. D., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky & T. J. White (eds), PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications, pp. 315 – 322. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Woodson jr., R. E. (1931). New South American Asclepiadaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 18: 557 – 563.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2012). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0