Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Nigeria to Cameroon, Bioko.


Darbyshire, I., Kiel, C.A., Daniel, T.F. et al. (2019). Two new genera of Acanthaceae from tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 74: 39.

This species was recorded as Near Threatened (NT) by Vollesen & Darbyshire (in Cheek et al. 2004). It appears to be fairly frequent in the lowland to mid-altitude forests of the Cameroon Highlands and southwestern Cameroon but its favoured habitat is threatened through large parts of its range, due to timber extraction and forest clearance for subsistence and commercial agriculture. It has an EOO of 53,797 km2 which is considerably greater than the 20,000 km2 threshold for Vulnerable under IUCN criterion B1 and has up to 20 locations historically but some of these are likely to have been lost. The assessment of Near Threatened (NT) under criterion B is therefore upheld here.
Nigeria (Cross River State), Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Cameroon (Southwest, Littoral and South Regions)
This species is recorded from lowland rainforest in deep shade, sometimes being recorded from swamp and riverine forests. It can also persist in secondary and disturbed forest patches; 70 – 900 m elevation.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb or subshrub, 30 – 200 cm tall, erect or decumbent, sometimes rooting at lower nodes; young stems somewhat 4- or 6-angular, furrowed in dry state, markedly swollen above each node (often shrunken in dry state), with two opposite-decussate lines of short retrorse trichomes most numerous below each node, trichomes multicellular with conspicuous dark cell walls, stems also with numerous minute red-brown sessile glands throughout; mature stems terete
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with a strong liquorice odour (fide Bos 5548); petioles 18 – 66 mm long, furrowed above, antrorse-puberulous; blade dark green above, sometimes paler or purplish along main veins, pale grey-green to purplish beneath, ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-elliptic, 6.2 – 19.7 × 3.4 – 10.5 cm (length : width ratio 1.5 – 2.5 : 1), base cordate, sometimes asymmetrically so, margin entire or obscurely undulate, apex acuminate, adaxial surface glabrous or with scattered short multicellular trichomes that appear deflated in dry state, abaxial surface antrorse-puberulous along main veins, margin with few short patent glandular trichomes in proximal half; cystoliths linear, numerous and conspicuous on adaxial surface, most dense along veins, both surfaces also with numerous minute red-brown sessile glands; lateral veins 6 – 9 pairs, brochidodromous, prominent beneath, with ± scalariform tertiary veins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted 6.3 – 8.7 mm from base of corolla; filaments free for 5 – 7.5 mm, flattened either side of raised central vein, shortly pubescent at base and along fused portion, glabrous distally; anthers bithecous, thecae parallel or slightly oblique, slightly offset by c. 0.15 mm, narrowly oblong, 1.9 – 2.4 mm long, both with broad subsessile glands on adhering surfaces, upper (inner) theca with dense band of short multicellular eglandular trichomes and shorter capitate glandular trichomes dorsally along exposed side, lower (outer) theca glabrous on exposed side, both thecae with broad flattened, slightly protruding appendage below suture with irregular fringe of conical teeth to 0.07 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes linear or usually linear-spathulate, closely resembling the bracteoles, somewhat unequal in length, 8 – 12.5 × 0.2 – 0.5 mm, apex blunt, often slightly recurved, indumentum like that of bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 16 – 21 mm long, dull red, red-brown or purple, lower lip white to pale yellow with red to purple speckling; tube 10 – 14 mm long, basal cylindrical portion 7.5 – 10 mm long, c. 1.2 – 1.7 mm in diam. at midpoint, expanded throat 3 – 4.5 mm long, glabrous externally, minutely puberulous within with mixed eglandular and glandular trichomes particularly on roof, with a diffuse broad band of longer eglandular trichomes starting 2.5 – 4.7 mm from base, only sparsely hairy below this; upper lip triangular, 4.5 – 7.3 × 4 – 5 mm when flattened but margins narrowly involute, apex shortly bilobed, lobes 0.5 – 1.3 mm long, tips reflexed; lower lip 4.5 – 7 mm long, deeply 3-lobed, lateral lobes lanceolate, 2.3 – 4.2 × 1 – 2.2 mm when flattened, median lobe broadly rounded, 1.8 – 3 × 3 – 3.6 mm, with two raised, convergent ridges and a central furrow and with prominent reticulate venation, lips glabrous externally except for few short trichomes at apices of lower lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Floral disk annular, fleshy, 0.5 – 0.7 mm tall
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary black, oblong-ellipsoid, 1.1 – 1.6 mm long, glabrous; style pale orange-brown in dry state, 10 – 13.5 mm long, with few pale eglandular trichomes at base; stigma shortly bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen perprolate, 3-colporate, 6-pseudocolpate, polar diameter (P) 57 – 60 μm, equatorial diameter (E) 24 μm, P:E = 2.37 – 2.5, ora considerably wider than colpi and with membrane echinate (to gemmate), the two pseudocolpi in each mesocolpium curved toward one another equatorially (and sometimes toward poles as well) and sometimes fusing at equator forming an hour-glass or figure eight shape, interaperatural exine reticulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 17.5 mm long including stipe 8 mm long, apex shortly attenuate, surface glabrous; immature seeds only seen, flattened, tuberculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal spiciform thyrse with few flowers open at any one time, (1.8 –) 3.5 – 11 × 2 – 2.7 cm, comprising a series of opposite (sub)sessile dichasia, these at first 3-flowered but can become many-flowered with age; rachis greenish-white or purplish, indumentum as that of stem but trichomes can be more dense; bracts along rachis greenish-white or purplish towards base, apical portion darker, linear, linear-spathulate or more rarely linear-lanceolate, 6.5 – 14 × 0.3 – 1.3 mm, pairs divergent, distal portion often ascending, apex usually obtuse or rounded, surface with short antrorse eglandular trichomes and with few to numerous spreading glandular trichomes distally, cystoliths numerous and conspicuous in proximal half or two thirds; bract pair at base of thyrse often somewhat larger, lanceolate, up to 4 mm wide; bracteoles as bracts but usually linear-spathulate, 7.5 – 11.5 × 0.3 – 0.8 mm, apex sometimes slightly recurved; flowers subsessile or on stout glabrous pedicels to 2 mm long
Champluviera populifolia has been recorded in flower most frequently in the months of (October –) November – December (– January) but with occasional records from February, March, May and July. The peak flowering time coincides with the onset of the dry season within this species’ range.
Equatorial Guinea, Fernando Po [Bioko], fl. 1862, Mann 1426 (K! [K000419169] lectotype, selected here). Additional syntypes: Equatorial Guinea, Bioko, in bud Nov. 1841, Vogel s.n. (K! [K000419170]); Cameroon, Bipinde, fl. 1896, Zenker 1205 (BM! [BM000949851], K!, M* [M0186812], S* [S09-5904], WAG* [WAG0248378]).


Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Herbaceous undershrub 4-5 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Red-purple flowers 1/2-2/3 in. long in a dense cylindrical panicle.

Native to:

Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Nigeria

Champluviera populifolia (C.B.Clarke) I.Darbysh. & T.F.Daniel appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2013 Tchiengue, B. [2486], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000460967
Jan 1, 1996 Schoenenberger, J. [26], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000199864
Jan 1, 1996 Schoenenberger, J. [53], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000199867
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7654], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000197519
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7771], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000197518
Jan 1, 1994 Cable, S. [585], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000011439
Keay, R.W.J. [28238], Nigeria Schaueria populifolia 16932.000
Ngansop, T.E. [187], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000795206

First published in Kew Bull. 74(3)-39: 9 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Agnew, A. D. Q. (2013). Upland Kenya Wild Flowers and Ferns. Third Edition. Nature Kenya — the East African Natural History Society, Nairobi.
  • Akaike, H. (1974). Automatic control: A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE T. Biomed. Eng. 19: 716 – 723.
  • Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A. W., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. (2011). Supporting red list threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys 150: 117 – 126.
  • Balkwill, K. & Welman, W. G. (2000). Acanthaceae. In: O. A. Leistner (ed), Seed Plants of Southern Africa: Families and Genera. Strelitzia 10, 34 – 45. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Balkwill, K., Getliffe-Norris, F. & Balkwill, M.-J. (1996). Systematic studies in the Acanthaceae; Dicliptera in southern Africa. Kew Bull. 51: 1 – 61.
  • Cable, S. & Cheek, M. (1998). The Plants of Mount Cameroon. A Conservation Checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Champluvier, D. & Darbyshire, I. (2009). A revision of the genera Brachystephanus and Oreacanthus (Acanthaceae) in tropical Africa. Syst. Geogr. Pl. 79: 115 – 192.
  • Cheek, M., Pollard, B. J., Darbyshire, I., Wild, C. & Onana, J.-M. (2004). The Plants of Mwanenguba, Mt Kupe and the Bakossi Mts, Cameroon. A Conservation Checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clarke, C. B. (1900a). Schaueria. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol. 5: 242. L. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Clarke, C. B. (1900b). Chlamydocardia. In: W. T. Thiselton-Dyer (ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol. 5: 234 – 235. L. Reeve & Co, London.
  • Côrtes, A. L. A., Daniel, T. F. & Rapini, A. (2016). Taxonomic revision of the genus Schaueria (Acanthaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 302: 819 – 851.
  • Daniel, T. F. & Figueiredo, E. (2009). The California Academy of Sciences Gulf of Guinea Expeditions (2001, 2006, 2008). VII. Acanthaceae of São Tomé and Príncipe. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4(60): 623 – 674.
  • Daniel, T. F. (1995a). Revision of Odontonema (Acanthaceae) in Mexico. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 20: 147 – 171.
  • Daniel, T. F. (1995b). Acanthaceae. In: D. E. Breedlove (ed.), Flora of Chiapas, Pt. 4. The California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
  • Daniel, T. F. (2009). Synopsis of Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) in the Nueva Galicia Region of Western Mexico with a new species, D. novogaliciana. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4(60): 1 – 18.
  • Daniel, T. F. (2015). Odontonema aliciae, a new heterostylous species of Acanthaceae from Panama. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4(62): 25 – 30.
  • Daniel, T. F. (2017). New and reconsidered Mexican Acanthaceae XII. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 64: 131 – 154.
  • Daniel, T. F., McDade, L. A., Manktelow, M. & Kiel, C. A. (2008). The “Tetramerium Lineage” (Acanthaceae: Acanthoideae: Justicieae): Delimitation and intra-lineage relationships based on cp and nrlTS sequence data. Syst. Bot. 33: 416 – 436.
  • Darbyshire, I. & Govaerts, R. (2017). A synopsis of Chlamydocardia (Acanthaceae) including Linocalix. Kew Bull. 72: 37 (5 pages).
  • Darbyshire, I. & Goyder, D. J. (2019). Notes on Justicia sect. Monechma (Acanthaceae) in Angola, including two new species. Blumea 64: 97 – 107.
  • Darbyshire, I. & Harris, T. (2006). Notes on the genus Rhinacanthus (Acanthaceae) in Africa with a synopsis of the R. nasutus-R. gracilis complex and a key to the African members of the genus. Kew Bull. 61: 401 – 418.
  • Darbyshire, I. & Vollesen, K. (2007). The transfer of the genus Peristrophe to Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) with a new species described from eastern Africa. Kew Bull. 62: 119 – 128.
  • Darbyshire, I. (2009). Notes on the genus Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) in Eastern Africa. Kew Bull. 63: 361 – 383.
  • Darbyshire, I., Nanyeni, L., Chase, F. M. & Gonçalves, F. M. P. (2018). A synopsis of Rhinacanthus (Acanthaceae) in Angola and Namibia. Kew Bull. 73: 21 (12 pages).
  • Darbyshire, I., Pearce, L. & Banks, H. (2012). The genus Isoglossa (Acanthaceae) in west Africa. Kew Bull. 66: 425 – 439.
  • Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Ensermu Kelbessa. (2010). Acanthaceae (Part 2). In: H. J. Beentje (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darriba, D., Taboada, G. L. & Posada, D. (2012). JModelTest 2: More models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods 9: 772.
  • Doyle, J. J. & Doyle, J. L. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small amounts of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull. 19: 11 – 15.
  • Engler, A. (1892). Über die Hochgebirgsflora des tropischen Afrika. Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1891, Abh. II: 1 – 461.
  • Ensermu Kelbessa. (2003). Two new species of Acanthaceae from NE tropical Africa and Arabia. Kew Bull. 58: 703 – 712.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Keith-Lucas, M. (1996). Pollen morphology of Brachystephanus (Acanthaceae-Justicieae). Grana 35: 65 – 73.
  • Graham, V. A. W. (1988). Delimitation and infrageneric classification of Justicia (Acanthaceae). Kew Bull. 43: 551 – 624.
  • Hansen, B. (1992). The genus Ptyssiglottis (Acanthaceae). A taxonomic monograph. Opera Bot. 116: 1 – 58.
  • Heine, H. (1963). Acanthaceae. In: F. N. Hepper (ed.), Flora of West Tropical Africa, Ed. 2, Vol. 2: 391 – 432. The Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations, London.
  • Heine, H. (1966). Acanthacées. In: A. Aubreville (ed.), Flore du Gabon, Vol. 13: 3 – 250. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Ronquist, F. (2001). MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17: 754 – 755.
  • Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Ronquist, F., & Hall, B. (2001). MrBayes: A program for Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Manual.
  • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J. M. (1931). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 2, Pt. 1. The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1. Second Edition. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland & Cambridge.
  • Kiel, C. A., Daniel, T. F., Darbyshire, I. & McDade, L. A. (2017). Unraveling relationships in the morphologically diverse and taxonomically challenging ‘justicioid’ lineage (Acanthaceae). Taxon 66: 645 – 675.
  • Kiel, C. A., McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F. & Champluvier, D. (2006). Phylogenetic delimitation of Isoglossinae (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) and relationships among constituent genera. Taxon 55: 683 – 694.
  • Klopper, R. R., Chatelain, C., Bänninger, V., Habashi, C., Steyn, H. M., de Wet, B. C., Arnold, T. H., Gautier, L., Smith, G. E. & Spichiger, R. (2006). Checklist of the flowering plants of sub-Saharan Africa. An index of accepted names and synonyms. South African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 42, SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Lebrun, J. P. & Stork, A. L. (1997). Énumération des plantes à fleurs d’Afrique Tropicale. IV Gamopétales: Ericaceae à Lamiaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la ville de Genève.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F. & Kiel, C. A. (2008). Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae s.l. (Lamiales). Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1136 – 1152.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F. & Kiel, C. A. (2018). The Tetramerium Lineage (Acanthaceae, Justicieae) revisited: phylogenetic relationships reveal polyphyly of many New World genera accompanied by rampant evolution of floral morphology. Syst. Bot. 43: 97 – 116.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F., Masta, S. E. & Riley, K. M. (2000). Phylogenetic relationships within the Tribe Justicieae (Acanthaceae): evidence from molecular sequences, morphology, and cytology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 435 – 458.
  • Mildbraed, J. (1926). Acanthaceae. In: R. E. Fries & T. C. E. Fries, Beiträge zur kenntnis der flora des Kenia, Mt Aberdare und Mt Elgon. VIII. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 485 – 522.
  • Morgan, D. R. & Soltis, D. E. (1993). Phylogenetic relationships among members of Saxifragaceae sensu lato based on rbcL sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 631 – 660.
  • Nees, C. G. (1839). Acanthaceae. In: H. R. Goeppert, J. K. Schauer & J. C. Schauer (eds), Delectus Seminum in Horto Botanico Vratislaviensi Collectorum, pp. 1 – 3. Postmark, Breslau.
  • Odadi, W. O., Karachi, M. K., Abdulrazak, S. A. & Young, T. P. (2013). Protein supplementation reduces non-grass foraging by a primary grazer. Ecol. Appl. 23: 455 – 463.
  • Onana, J. M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon. A taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments. Flore du Cameroun Vol. 39 “occasional volume”. IRAD National Herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.Google Scholar
  • Onana, J. M. (2013). Synopsis de especès végétales vasculaires endémiques et rares du Cameroun. Check-liste pour la gestation durable et la conservation de la biodiversité. In: J. M. Onana (ed.), Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 40. Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation (MINRESI), Yaoundé.
  • Posada, D. & Crandall, K. A. (2001). Selecting the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution. Syst. Biol. 50: 580 – 601.
  • Posada, D. (2008). JModelTest: Phylogenetic model averaging. Molec. Biol. Evol. 25: 1253 – 1256.
  • Rambaut, A., Suchard, M. A., Xie, D. & Drummond, A. J. (2014). Tracer v. 1.6.
  • Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572 – 1574.
  • Schwartz, O. (1939). Flora des tropischen Arabien. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 10: 1 – 393.
  • Schweinfurth, G. (1892). Phanerogamen. In: Appendix II, Aufzählung der wissenshcaftlichen Ergebnisse der Expedition, pp. 852 – 868. In: L. R. von Höhnel, Zum Rudolph-see und Stephanie-see. A. Hölder, Vienna.
  • Schweinfurth, G. (1894). Phanerogams. In: Appendix II, Abstract of the scientific results of the Expedition, pp. 350 – 368. In: L. von Höhnel, Discovery of lakes Rudolf and Stefanie: a narrative of Count Samuel Teleki’s exploring and hunting expedition in eastern equatorial Africa in 1887 and 1888. Vol. 2. Longmans, Green & co., London.
  • Sosef, M. S. M. (2006). Acanthaceae. In: M. S. M. Sosef et al. (eds), Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon / Checklist of Gabonese vascular plants. Scripta Bot. Belg. 35: 35 – 43.
  • Sosef, M. S. M., Dauby, G., Blach-Overgaard, A., van der Burgt, X., Catarino, L., Damen, T., Deblauwe, V., Dessein, S., Dransfield, J., Droissart, V., Duarte, M. C., Engledow, H., Fadeur, G., Figueira, R., Gereau, R. E., Hardy, O. J., Harris, D. J., de Heij, J., Janssens, S., Klomberg, Y., Ley, A. C., Mackinder, B. A., Meerts, P., van de Poe, J. L., Sonké, B., Stévart, T., Stoffelen, P., Svenning, J.-C., Sepulchre, P., Zaiss, R., Wieringa, J. J. & Couvreur, T. L. P. (2017). Exploring the floristic diversity of tropical Africa. BMC Biology 15: 15.
  • Stamatakis, A. (2014). RAxML version 8: A tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312 – 1313.
  • Thiers, B. (2019) Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. Last accessed 25 Jan. 2019.
  • Tripp, E. A., Daniel, T. F., Fatimah, S. & McDade, L. A. (2013). Phylogenetic relationships within Ruellieae (Acanthaceae), and a revised classification. Int. J. Plant Sci. 174: 97 – 137.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.