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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Nigeria to Cameroon, Bioko.

[KBu]

Darbyshire, I., Kiel, C.A., Daniel, T.F. et al. (2019). Two new genera of Acanthaceae from tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 74: 39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-019-9828-z

Conservation
This species was recorded as Near Threatened (NT) by Vollesen & Darbyshire (in Cheek et al. 2004). It appears to be fairly frequent in the lowland to mid-altitude forests of the Cameroon Highlands and southwestern Cameroon but its favoured habitat is threatened through large parts of its range, due to timber extraction and forest clearance for subsistence and commercial agriculture. It has an EOO of 53,797 km2 which is considerably greater than the 20,000 km2 threshold for Vulnerable under IUCN criterion B1 and has up to 20 locations historically but some of these are likely to have been lost. The assessment of Near Threatened (NT) under criterion B is therefore upheld here.
Distribution
Nigeria (Cross River State), Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Cameroon (Southwest, Littoral and South Regions)
Ecology
This species is recorded from lowland rainforest in deep shade, sometimes being recorded from swamp and riverine forests. It can also persist in secondary and disturbed forest patches; 70 – 900 m elevation.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb or subshrub, 30 – 200 cm tall, erect or decumbent, sometimes rooting at lower nodes; young stems somewhat 4- or 6-angular, furrowed in dry state, markedly swollen above each node (often shrunken in dry state), with two opposite-decussate lines of short retrorse trichomes most numerous below each node, trichomes multicellular with conspicuous dark cell walls, stems also with numerous minute red-brown sessile glands throughout; mature stems terete
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with a strong liquorice odour (fide Bos 5548); petioles 18 – 66 mm long, furrowed above, antrorse-puberulous; blade dark green above, sometimes paler or purplish along main veins, pale grey-green to purplish beneath, ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-elliptic, 6.2 – 19.7 × 3.4 – 10.5 cm (length : width ratio 1.5 – 2.5 : 1), base cordate, sometimes asymmetrically so, margin entire or obscurely undulate, apex acuminate, adaxial surface glabrous or with scattered short multicellular trichomes that appear deflated in dry state, abaxial surface antrorse-puberulous along main veins, margin with few short patent glandular trichomes in proximal half; cystoliths linear, numerous and conspicuous on adaxial surface, most dense along veins, both surfaces also with numerous minute red-brown sessile glands; lateral veins 6 – 9 pairs, brochidodromous, prominent beneath, with ± scalariform tertiary veins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted 6.3 – 8.7 mm from base of corolla; filaments free for 5 – 7.5 mm, flattened either side of raised central vein, shortly pubescent at base and along fused portion, glabrous distally; anthers bithecous, thecae parallel or slightly oblique, slightly offset by c. 0.15 mm, narrowly oblong, 1.9 – 2.4 mm long, both with broad subsessile glands on adhering surfaces, upper (inner) theca with dense band of short multicellular eglandular trichomes and shorter capitate glandular trichomes dorsally along exposed side, lower (outer) theca glabrous on exposed side, both thecae with broad flattened, slightly protruding appendage below suture with irregular fringe of conical teeth to 0.07 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes linear or usually linear-spathulate, closely resembling the bracteoles, somewhat unequal in length, 8 – 12.5 × 0.2 – 0.5 mm, apex blunt, often slightly recurved, indumentum like that of bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 16 – 21 mm long, dull red, red-brown or purple, lower lip white to pale yellow with red to purple speckling; tube 10 – 14 mm long, basal cylindrical portion 7.5 – 10 mm long, c. 1.2 – 1.7 mm in diam. at midpoint, expanded throat 3 – 4.5 mm long, glabrous externally, minutely puberulous within with mixed eglandular and glandular trichomes particularly on roof, with a diffuse broad band of longer eglandular trichomes starting 2.5 – 4.7 mm from base, only sparsely hairy below this; upper lip triangular, 4.5 – 7.3 × 4 – 5 mm when flattened but margins narrowly involute, apex shortly bilobed, lobes 0.5 – 1.3 mm long, tips reflexed; lower lip 4.5 – 7 mm long, deeply 3-lobed, lateral lobes lanceolate, 2.3 – 4.2 × 1 – 2.2 mm when flattened, median lobe broadly rounded, 1.8 – 3 × 3 – 3.6 mm, with two raised, convergent ridges and a central furrow and with prominent reticulate venation, lips glabrous externally except for few short trichomes at apices of lower lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Floral disk annular, fleshy, 0.5 – 0.7 mm tall
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary black, oblong-ellipsoid, 1.1 – 1.6 mm long, glabrous; style pale orange-brown in dry state, 10 – 13.5 mm long, with few pale eglandular trichomes at base; stigma shortly bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen perprolate, 3-colporate, 6-pseudocolpate, polar diameter (P) 57 – 60 μm, equatorial diameter (E) 24 μm, P:E = 2.37 – 2.5, ora considerably wider than colpi and with membrane echinate (to gemmate), the two pseudocolpi in each mesocolpium curved toward one another equatorially (and sometimes toward poles as well) and sometimes fusing at equator forming an hour-glass or figure eight shape, interaperatural exine reticulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 17.5 mm long including stipe 8 mm long, apex shortly attenuate, surface glabrous; immature seeds only seen, flattened, tuberculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal spiciform thyrse with few flowers open at any one time, (1.8 –) 3.5 – 11 × 2 – 2.7 cm, comprising a series of opposite (sub)sessile dichasia, these at first 3-flowered but can become many-flowered with age; rachis greenish-white or purplish, indumentum as that of stem but trichomes can be more dense; bracts along rachis greenish-white or purplish towards base, apical portion darker, linear, linear-spathulate or more rarely linear-lanceolate, 6.5 – 14 × 0.3 – 1.3 mm, pairs divergent, distal portion often ascending, apex usually obtuse or rounded, surface with short antrorse eglandular trichomes and with few to numerous spreading glandular trichomes distally, cystoliths numerous and conspicuous in proximal half or two thirds; bract pair at base of thyrse often somewhat larger, lanceolate, up to 4 mm wide; bracteoles as bracts but usually linear-spathulate, 7.5 – 11.5 × 0.3 – 0.8 mm, apex sometimes slightly recurved; flowers subsessile or on stout glabrous pedicels to 2 mm long
Phenology
Champluviera populifolia has been recorded in flower most frequently in the months of (October –) November – December (– January) but with occasional records from February, March, May and July. The peak flowering time coincides with the onset of the dry season within this species’ range.
Type
Equatorial Guinea, Fernando Po [Bioko], fl. 1862, Mann 1426 (K! [K000419169] lectotype, selected here). Additional syntypes: Equatorial Guinea, Bioko, in bud Nov. 1841, Vogel s.n. (K! [K000419170]); Cameroon, Bipinde, fl. 1896, Zenker 1205 (BM! [BM000949851], K!, M* [M0186812], S* [S09-5904], WAG* [WAG0248378]).

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Herbaceous undershrub 4-5 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Red-purple flowers 1/2-2/3 in. long in a dense cylindrical panicle.

Native to:

Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Nigeria

Champluviera populifolia (C.B.Clarke) I.Darbysh. & T.F.Daniel appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2013 Tchiengue, B. [2486], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000460967
Jan 1, 1996 Schoenenberger, J. [26], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000199864
Jan 1, 1996 Schoenenberger, J. [53], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000199867
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7654], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000197519
Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7771], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000197518
Jan 1, 1994 Cable, S. [585], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000011439
Keay, R.W.J. [28238], Nigeria Schaueria populifolia 16932.000
Ngansop, T.E. [187], Cameroon Schaueria populifolia K000795206

First published in Kew Bull. 74(3)-39: 9 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

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Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0