Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K.Koch) Asch. & Graebn.

First published in Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 723 (1900)
This subspecies is accepted
The native range of this subspecies is E. Medit. to Central Asia and China (Sichuan, Yunnan). It is an annual and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Descriptions

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change Project, 2015. Azerbaijan Crop Wild Relatives Seed Collecting Guide. Compiled by Laura Jennings, RBG Kew. Updated 2018 by Richard Allen, RBG Kew.

Habit
clump-forming perennial-culms erect, or geniculately ascending, 35-70 cm long clump-forming perennial-culms erect, or geniculately ascending, 35-70 cm long
Phenology
flower (march - june), fruit (march - june) flower (March-June), fruit (March-June).
Morphology General Habit
Clump-forming perennial-Culms erect, or geniculately ascending, 35-70 cm long
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking, auricles falcate Leaf-blades 5-16 x 0.4-0.8 cm, surface smooth, or scabrous
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule an eciliate membrane
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes solitary, linear, bilateral, 4-9 x 0.6-0.8 cm
Morphology Leaves Rachis
Rhachis fragile at the nodes, flattened, margins ciliate, internodes oblong, 3.5-5 mm long, falling with spikelet above
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sterile spikelets well-developed, containing empty lemmas or anthers, lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 4-6 mm long, shorter than fertile spikelets, glumes subulate, lemmas 1, 7-9 mm long Spikelets lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 12-14 mm long, falling entire, deciduous with accessory branch structures Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis, arranged in threes: one fertile, 2 sterile
Fertile
Fertile spikelets with a barren rhachilla extension
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes collateral, similar, equal in length, linear, or lanceolate, 4-6 mm long, surface pubescent, apex 1 -awned, awn 10-15 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Fertile lemma lanceolate or ovate, 12-14 mm long, coriaceous, not keeled, 5 -veined, apex acuminate, 1 -awned
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 3, 2.5-3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary pubescent on apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp, sulcate on hilar side, hairy at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Hilum
Hilum linear.
Ecology
Grasslands, meadows, cultivated areas, often weedy. Altitude: 0 – 4500m. grasslands, meadows, cultivated areas, often weedy. altitude 0 - 4500 m
Distribution
Greece, Turkey, Egypt, South-west Asia from Iran through to Pakistan, northern India and Nepal. Greece, Turkey, Egypt, South-West Asia from Iran through to Pakistan, Northern India and Nepal.
Conservation
Least concerned. least concerned
[SCG]

Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 35-70 cm long. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 5-16 cm long; 4-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; linear; bilateral; 4-9 cm long; 6-8 mm wide. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes oblong; 3.5-5 mm long; falling with spikelet above. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-6 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes subulate. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; 7-9 mm long; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 12-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-6 mm long; shorter than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes subulate. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 1; 7-9 mm long; muticous.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 12-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes collateral; similar. Lower glume linear, or lanceolate; 4-6 mm long; 1 length of upper glume. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 10-15 mm long. Upper glume linear, or lanceolate; 4-6 mm long. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 10-15 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate, or ovate; 12-14 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 40-140 mm long overall; limb scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long. Ovary pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; sulcate on hilar side; hairy at apex. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: southeastern. Africa: north. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, and China. Asia-tropical: India.
Reference
Triticeae. Fl Turk 1993.
[GB]

Common Names

English
Wild Barley

Sources

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Seed Collection Guides

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0