Echinochloa colonum subsp. edulis (Honda) Banfi & Galasso

First published in Nat. Hist. Sci. 8(1): 71 (2021)
This subspecies is accepted
The native range of this subspecies is a cultigen from Tropical Africa. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect; robust; 30-150 cm long. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule absent. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 5-20 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; closely spaced (inflorescence lanceolate); unilateral; 1-3 cm long; simple. Central inflorescence axis 6-20 cm long. Rhachis angular; glabrous on surface, or pilose on surface. Spikelet packing crowded; 4-6 -rowed. Spikelets in pairs, or clustered at each node. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2-4 in the cluster.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; gibbous; acuminate; 2.5-3.5 mm long; persistent on plant.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; gibbous; acuminate; 2.5-3.5 mm long; persistent on plant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.3-0.4 length of spikelet; membranous; pallid, or yellow; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent, or hispid. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; membranous; pallid, or yellow; without keels; 3-7 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent, or hispid. Upper glume apex cuspidate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; pubescent, or hispid; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2-3 mm long; indurate; much thinner above; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; laterally pinched. Palea reflexed at apex; indurate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis exposed between gaping lemma and palea at maturity.
Distribution
Africa: east tropical and southern tropical. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia. South America: southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.
[GB]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/177074/17661152

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Common Names

English
Japanese Millett

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images