Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

First published in Tabl. Encycl. 2: 116 (1797)
This name is a synonym of Zanthoxylum asiaticum

This name was accepted following an alternative taxonomy by these authorities:

  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1979). Flore des Mascareignes 64-68: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1985). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 5: 1-476. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Kokwaro, J.O. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rutaceae: 1-52. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Pasha, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). [Cited as Toddalia asiatica.]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Brenan in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 8:233 (1953).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 491 (1961).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 317 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 171 (1962)
  • G. Gilbert in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 7: 99, t.13 (1958).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 545 (1949).
  • Lam., Tab. Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 116 (1797).
  • Mendonça in Flora Zambesiaca: 199 (1963).
  • Verdoorn in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1926: 400 (1926).

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:


  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants.