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This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to SE. Cape Prov.
Carissa macrocarpa

[FZ]

Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg and F. K. Kupicha et al.. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Many-stemmed shrub 1–3·7 m. high.
Morphology Stem
Young stems glabrous, greenish, strongly wrinkled into longitudinal ridges and channels; older twigs similar, with greenish or brownish, often glossy, surface.
Morphology General Spines
Spines usually bifurcate, the axis (2)5–22 mm., first branches (2)3–23 mm. and second branches (2)4–32 mm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves thickly coriaceous, glabrous, often drying discolorous with dark grey to brown upper surface and pale green to brown lower surface; petiole 2–4 mm., glabrous.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Lamina 2·4–7 x 1·7–5·2 cm., broadly to narrowly ovate or subcircular, the apex obtuse, mucronate, the base rounded; upper surface with midrib impressed and lateral nerves faintly raised, usually indistinct; lower surface with midrib prominent and lateral nerves level or ± impressed, very indistinct; margin revolute, not crenate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pentamerous, in sessile or shortly pedunculate terminal 1–few-flowered cymes, white, jasmine-scented, heterostylous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2–4·5(7) mm. long; segments narrowly triangular to broader and somewhat foliaceous, glabrous, not ciliate; fleshy triangular dark-coloured scales c. 0·5 mm. long present, variable in number, shortly attached to base of sepals on their margins and inner surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tube 11–18·5 mm. long, glabrous or pubescent on outer surface, sparsely to densely pilose within on the upper 2/3. Corolla lobes 9–24 mm. long, broadly elliptic, glabrous or pubescent on upper and lower surfaces, overlapping to the left.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at the middle of the corolla tube; anthers subsessile, 1·25–2 mm. long (1·25 mm. and apparently non-functioning in long-styled flowers, 1·75–2 mm. in short-styled flowers).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Gynoecium glabrous; ovary fusiform and 2–3·5 mm. long in long-styled flowers or conical and up to 1 mm. long in short-styled flowers; style and stigma 6–7 mm. long, the stigma reaching beyond the anthers, or only 2·5–3 mm.; stigma pubescent at apex, not obviously bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3–5 cm. long when fresh, ovoid, pointed, red and edible when ripe, many-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 6 x 4 mm.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 700 - 1500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto

[FZ]

Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg and F. K. Kupicha et al.. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Many-stemmed rhizomatous shrub 0·5–3 m. high.
Morphology Twigs
Young twigs thinly to densely crispate-puberulous, reddish-brown, the surface ± smooth or finely and shallowly wrinkled; older twigs with rough whitish flaking bark.
Morphology General Spines
Spines either furcate or bifurcate, the axis 3–12 mm. long, the first branches 5-12 mm., the second branches 6-16 mm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves moderately coriaceous, drying discolorous, the upper surface dark grey or brown, the lower surface paler, green or brown; petiole c. 2 mm. long, glabrous or minutely puberulous.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Lamina 1·5–3·5(5) x 0·7–2(3) cm., ovate to narrowly ovate or elliptic, rarely subcircular, with apex usually acute, rarely obtuse, mucronate and base rounded to cuneate; upper surface glabrous, midrib impressed, lateral nerves faintly raised, very inconspicuous; lower surface glabrous or sparsely puberulous on midrib, midrib raised, lateral nerves invisible; margin revolute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pentamerous, solitary between two spines, shortly pedicellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–5 mm. long, sepals subulate, dorsally puberulent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white; tube 11–16 mm. long, pubescent externally, pilose internally in the upper 2/3 to 3/4; lobes 9–21 mm. long, elliptic, overlapping to the left, pubescent below, glabrous or pubescent above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at or just above the middle of the corolla tube; anthers subsessile, 1·5–2·5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Gynoecium c. 4·5 mm. long, stigma not reaching to base of anthers; ovary c. 1 mm. long, ovoid, smooth, glabrous; style tapering, glabrous; stigma c. 1 mm. long, 2-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits c. 1·5 cm. long when ripe, subglobose, red, edible, 8-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 5 mm. long, ovate in outline, discoid.

Native to:

Cape Provinces, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Arizona, Ascension, Bahamas, China Southeast, El Salvador, Florida, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Marianas, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago

Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1998 Harvey [s.n.], South Africa K000233543
Jan 1, 1998 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000233544 isotype
Jan 1, 1998 Krauss [88], South Africa K000233545
Jan 1, 1998 Cordukes, S. [s.n.], South Africa K000233546
Jan 1, 1998 Krauss [88], South Africa K000233549
Jan 1, 1998 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000233547 isotype
Jan 1, 1998 Gerrard, W.T. [755], South Africa K000233548
Jan 1, 1998 Mogg, A.O.D. [28448], Mozambique K000233555 holotype

First published in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 336 (1844)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Morales, J.F. (2006). Estudios en las Apocynaceae Neotropicales XXVIII: le familia Apocynaceae (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae) de El Salvador, Centroamérica Darwiniana 44: 453-489.
  • Morales, J.F. (2009). Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXIX: revisión de las Apocynoideae y Rauvolfioideae de Honduras Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 66: 217-262.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/