Salvadora persica L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 122 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Africa to Syria and Arabian Peninsula. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the desert or dry shrubland biome.

Distribution

Native to:

Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Cameroon

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kotiya, A., Solanki, Y. & Reddy, G.V. (2020). Flora of Rajasthan: 1-769. Rajasthan state biodiversity board.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman). Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1968). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Salvadoraceae: 1-9.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Al Sadhan, R. I. & Almas, K. (1999). Miswak (chewing stick): a cultural and scientific heritage. The Saudi Dental Journal 11: 80–88.
  • Ghazanfar, S. A. (2011). Medicinal plants of the Middle East. In: Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering and Crop Improvement, ed. Ram J. Singh, pp. 163–180, CRC Press, Florida, USA.
  • Paull, R. E. (2008). Salvadora persica. In: The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts, ed. J. Janick & R. E. Paull, pp. 791–792, CABI International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Sher, H., Al-Yemeni, M. N., Masrahi, Y. S. & Shah, A. H. (2010). Ethnomedicinal and ethnoecological evaluation of Salvadora persica L.: a threatened medicinal plant in Arabian Peninsula. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4: 1209–1215.
  • World Agroforestry Centre (2013). Salvadora persica, Agroforestree database.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 352, t. 73, 7.
  • Chev. Bot. 399
  • Sleumer in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 20B: 238, fig. 74, A & G–J (1942).
  • —F.T.A. 4, 1: 23

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kotiya, A., Solanki, Y. & Reddy, G.V. (2020). Flora of Rajasthan: 1-769. Rajasthan state biodiversity board.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman). Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1968). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Salvadoraceae: 1-9.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by Abdi M. Dahir [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 19: 147–154 (1964).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(1): 23 (1902).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 487 (1958).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 496(1961).
  • Engl., Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 250, fig. 122/A, G–J (1921).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 287, fig. 103 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 221(1962).
  • Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl. 1: 237, fig. 180 (1926)
  • Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2, 1: 313, fig. 171 (1959).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 547 (1949).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 644(1958).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 122 (1753).
  • Sleumer in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 20B: 238, fig. 74/A, G-J (1942).
  • Verde, in Kew Bulletin 19: 147 (1964).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 371 (1952).

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Apr 1, 1978 Erens, J. [236] Botswana K000285516 No
Apr 1, 1978 Munro, H.K. [ML. 16] Zambia K000233346 Type Yes
Apr 1, 1978 Chase, N.C. [6967] Zimbabwe K000285523 Yes
Apr 1, 1978 Erens, J. [236] Botswana K000285521 No
Apr 9, 1943 Greenway, P.J. [802] Tanzania K000233348 Isotype Yes
Apr 9, 1943 Greenway, P.J. [802] Tanzania K000233349 Type Yes
Apr 9, 1943 Greenway, P.J. [802] Tanzania K000233347 Type Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1042] K001110834 Unknown Type Material Yes
Smith, P.A. [737] Botswana K000285518 Yes
Bester, S.P. [9168] Angola K001604405 Yes
Smith, P.A. [163] Botswana K000285520 No
Headley, P.M. [178] Ethiopia K:SPC-06049.063 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1042] K001110836 Unknown Type Material Yes
Ash [715] Ethiopia K:SPC-37989.000 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1042] K001110835 Unknown Type Material Yes
Lamaton, R.M. [1302] Zambia K000285524 Yes
Smook, L. [462] Botswana K000285519 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1042] K001110837 Unknown Type Material Yes
Polhill, R. Kenya K:SPC-23387.000 No
Smith, P.A. [1781] Botswana K000285522 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1042] K001110833 Unknown Type Material Yes

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0