Salvadora persica L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 122 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Africa to Syria and Arabian Peninsula. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the desert or dry shrubland biome.

Descriptions

Salvadoraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A shrub or small tree, up to 30 ft. high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glaucous green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellowish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits red or purplish when ripe.
[FWTA]

Salvadoraceae, A. R. Vickery. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
Much branched shrubs or small trees to 6 m. high, unarmed.
Morphology Branches
Branches long, often pendulous or semiscandent, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subsucculent; blades coriaceous, landeolate to elliptic, occasionally orbicular, 1–3–10 cm. long, 1–2–3 cm. wide, rounded to acute at apex, cuneate to subcordate at base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, greenish–white in lateral and terminal panicles up to 10 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals (1)–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes red or dark red purple when ripe.
[FZ]

Salvadoraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
An evergreen shrub with grey or whitish stems forming tangled thickets, or a small tree, up to 2.7–6 m. tall, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Branches
Branches often pendulous, semiscandent, the flowering ones frequently hanging vertically for up to 1 m.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subsucculent; lamina coriaceous, lanceolate to elliptic, sometimes orbicular, 1.4–10.5 cm. long, 1.2–3(–7.5) cm. wide, rounded to subacute or acute at apex, mucronate, cuneate to subcordate at base; petiole 0.3–1.3(–2) cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, greenish-white, in numerous lateral and terminal panicles, up to 10 cm. long, with slender racemose branches.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes red or dark purple when ripe.
Figures
Fig. 3, p. 8.
[FTEA]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/138472280/146211537

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrub with grey or whitish scrambling stems, or a small tree
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pale green or greyish-green, ± fleshy; petiole 3–13(–20) mm long; blade leathery, lanceolate to elliptic or round, 1.4–10.5 x 1.2–7.5 cm, cuneate to subcordate at the base, rounded to acute and sometimes mucronate at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers greenish-white, in numerous axillary and terminal panicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes red or dark purple when ripe, c. 5–7 mm in diam.
Vernacular
Cadey (Somali, plant), rumay (Somali, tooth brush); mustard tree (English).
Note
The species has been divided into a number of varieties, and except for the widespread type variety, three other varieties have been recorded in Somalia. These are no more than extreme forms within a continuous variation
[FSOM]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Toothbrush tree is a small, evergreen shrub or tree that grows in hot, dry conditions in parts of Africa, the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula. It is valued as a medicinal plant by local people, since it contains a number of active compounds that promote good health.

As the common name suggests, small stems and roots are used as chewing sticks or natural toothbrushes and have been shown to reduce tooth decay, plaque and gum disease.Although the flowers are small and inconspicuous, the fruits that follow can be eaten or made into a drink, and the seeds are a valuable source of oil.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Salvadora persica is native to the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, western Asia, the Middle East, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Although it is drought tolerant, toothbrush tree is often found where there is some ground water. It is also salt tolerant, growing along coasts or on saline soils.

Description

Overview: An evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching up to 7 m tall, with many drooping branches.

Leaves: Rounded to ovate, slightly fleshy, about 7 × 3 cm, arranged in opposite pairs.

Flowers: Small, greenish, arranged in loose panicles up to 30 cm long.

Fruits: Fleshy berries about 1 cm in diameter, becoming red-scarlet when ripe. Each contains a single seed.

Other common names

Other common names for this species include: aarak, arak, arrak, arraka, el rak, kabats, shaow, shau, siwak (Arabic); jhal (Bengali); jhak, kharjal (Hindi); msuake, mswaki, musuake (Swahili); kalawa, karkol, perungoli, ughaiputtai, vivay (Tamil).

Threats and conservation

Although Salvadora persica has a wide distribution and tolerates harsh conditions, it is vulnerable to habitat loss and overgrazing.

Uses Food and drink

Toothbrush tree fruit can be eaten fresh, cooked, dried and stored or made into a fermented drink. The leaves have a bitter, peppery taste and are eaten as a green vegetable or made into a sauce.

Medicine and hygiene

The most widespread use of toothbrush tree is for chewing sticks or natural toothbrushes. Small twigs (around 3-5 mm in diameter) are used and have both physical and anti-microbial action, helping to control plaque and prevent tooth decay.

Roots and stems contain numerous active compounds, including salvadorine and benzylisothiocyanate, which inhibit bacteria that cause tooth decay, and tannins, which reduce plaque and gum disease. Leaves can be made into a mouthwash with similar properties.

Chewing sticks have been used for dental hygiene as far back as the time of the Babylonians (around 7000 BC). Salvadora persica is mentioned in the Qur'an and the Bible (as 'mustard seed' or 'pepper bush'). Today, it is used as a natural toothbrush by millions of people.

Other parts of the toothbrush tree are used to treat a range of ailments, including stomach ache, rheumatism and sores.

Household cleaning products

When pressed, seeds yield oil that is rich in lauric and myristic acids and can replace coconut oil in production of soaps and detergents.

Shelter and land-reclamation

Being tough and resilient to harsh conditions, toothbrush tree is often planted as a windbreak and can be used to improve saline or impoverished soils.

Agriculture

Leaves of Salvadora persica are browsed by cattle, sheep, goats and camels, although they are said to make milk taste bad. The flowers are a useful source of nectar for honeybees.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Five collections of Salvadora persica seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

Cultivation

Toothbrush tree is usually harvested from the wild rather than being cultivated. However, it germinates easily from seed once the flesh of the fruit is cleaned away and coppices well.

It tolerates extreme heat (up to about 45 ⁰C) and drought, but production is higher when it has some moisture around the roots.

This species at Kew

Toothbrush tree can be seen growing in Kew'sPalm House, where it is located in the African section (bed 17).

Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of Salvadora persica are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including images, can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of stems, roots, seeds, wood, bark and fruits of toothbrush tree, as well as chewing sticks and toothpaste made from it, are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Toothpaste made from Salvadora persica is displayed in the Plants+People exhibition, in Kew's Museum No. 1.

Distribution
India, Saudi Arabia
Ecology
Thorny scrub or grassland, along river banks or on seasonal floodplains; also along the coast.
Conservation
Not assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria, but not considered to be threatened.
Hazards

None known.

[KSP]

Uses

Use
The fruits of S. persica are edible and have a pungent taste. Twigs and roots are widely used as tooth brush. E xtracts from S. persica are used also in some tooth pastes in Europe, and the contents of salt and resins are said to have a cleaning effect.
[FSOM]

Use
Food and drink, medicine.
[KSP]

Common Names

English
Toothbrush Tree, Toothbrush tree

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0