Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 366 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropics & Subtropics. It is a liana and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for food.

Descriptions

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
farolito, farolitos, globitos, opio, yeyomo
[UNAL]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 20 - 1800 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, trepadora
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual climber to 3(–5) m long; young stems sparsely pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves triangular in outline; petiole 0.4–5.5 cm long, pubescent; terminal leaflet ovate, 1.5–6.5 x 0.8–2.5 cm, pilose on nerves, grossly dentate or serrate to pinnatipartite or rarely subentire, acuminate to acute (rarely rounded) and apiculate at the apex, attenuate to rounded at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences corymb-like; peduncle below the tendrils 1.5–10.5 cm long, above 2–12 mm long; flower-bearing part of 3–4 few-flowered raceme-like 1–3 mm long thyrses with peduncles 3–17 mm long; pedicels 1–2(–5 in fruit) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Outer sepals subcircular, c. 1 x 1 mm, inner ovate 2–3 x 1–2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to yellow, elliptic to obovate, 2–3 x c. 1 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments c. 2 mm long, pilose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c. 2 mm long; style c. 0.5 mm long; stigma c. 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit obtetrahedral, 1.2–4 x 1.7–3.7 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 5 mm in diam., with reniform hilum.
Distribution
N1; C1, 2; S1, 2 pantropical.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1500 m.
Note
Plants with capsules less than 1.8 cm long are sometimes recognized as var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume. Some of the collections from Somalia approach this variety.
[FSOM]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/82412344/82412355

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Sapindaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Annual straggling minutely puberulous herbaceous or slightly woody climber, sometimes flowering when only 25 cm. tall; stems with internodes 4–7 cm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves biternate, triangular; petiole (0·5)0·9–3·5 cm. long; rhachis 0·4–2 cm. long; terminal leaflet 2·5–4·5(6) × 0·7–2 cm; lateral leaflets 2·5–4·5(5) × 0·8–2(3·5) cm.; lamina bright green with a paler under surface, only the main veins raised, apex acuminate, margin incised-serrate, base attenuate; stipules 2 minute caducous scales.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a reduced complex axillary corymbose thyrse, abortively 3-flowered; peduncle 4–9 cm. long, very sparsely puberulous, multi-bracteate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to yellowish, 2–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals with lateral ones c. 1 mm. long, anterior and posterior ones c. 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–5 mm. long, posterior ones bearing recurved clavate appendages provided with hairs which cause the two free ends to cohere.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens with filaments 3 mm. long, free or slightly connate at the base; anthers 0·5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary hirsute; style-branches clavate, shortly plumose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 5 mm. in diam., reniform.
[FZ]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 20–1800 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Córdoba, Guainía, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Santander, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Herb, Climbing.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Shuru wina, Topo toropo, Ubasoshi
[UPFC]

Sapindaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Diagnostic
A slender climber, like the last (Cardiospermum grandiflorum), but with much smaller flowers
Ecology
Extending into drier regions.
Note
In var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume (see Radlk. l.c. 387) the fruits are 1–2 cm. long, but as so many specimens lack mature fruits the varieties are not separated in the following citation.
[FWTA]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Morphology General Habit
A mostly herbaceous vine, the stems glabrous or puberulous, 5–6-ribbed; leaves 3–10 cm long, with ovate or lanceolate leaflets, variously toothed or lobed, puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence umbel-like, long-stalked; flowers mostly 4–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4–5 mm in diameter, with white hilum nearly as broad as the seed.
Distribution
Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac.  Pantropical.
Ecology
Thickets and woodlands.
[Cayman]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Sapindaceae, Davies & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1998

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbaceous or slightly woody climber, 0.3–3 mm. long; stems deeply grooved, straw-coloured with grooves green.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pale green, stipulate, thin, biternate, triangular in outline, (3–)5–10 cm. long, 5–12 cm. wide, composed of 3 ± equal divisions each of a petiolule and 3 leaflets or deeply trifid leaflet; petiole 0.4–6 cm. long, pubescent; first order petiolules 0.5–3 cm. long, subequal or often the lateral ones somewhat longer than median one; leaflets sessile or with short secondary petiolules, sparsely pubescent when young, later glabrescent except for main nerves, the terminal one ovate, 1.5–6.5 cm. long, 0.8–2.5 cm. wide, acute to acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, apiculate, attenuate to rounded at the base, serrate to deeply dentate or pinnatipartite, rarely ± entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences corymbose, the rhachis bearing 3–4, 2–5-flowered raceme-like thyrses; peduncle below tendrils 1.5–10.5 cm. long, the part above 0.2–1.2 cm. long; secondary peduncles 0.3–1.7 cm. long; pedicels (0–)1–2 mm. long, lengthening to 5 mm. in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers said not to be scented; sepals yellow-green, unequal, the outer ± round, 1 mm. diameter, the inner larger and ovate, 2–3 mm. long, 1–2 mm. wide; petals white, cream, greenish or yellow, elliptic to obovate, 2–3 mm. long; appendages yellow at tip, hairy; disk of 2 curved elements 1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments ± 2 mm. long, pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary ± 2 mm. diameter; style 0.5 mm. long, with yellow stigma equalling it.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow-green turning greenish brown to reddish or dark brown, obtetrahedral, 1–3.5 cm. long, 1.8–4 cm. wide, dehiscing into 3 segments, at first densely puberulous or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds black, globose, 5 mm. diameter, with a reniform or crescentic hilar area, 3–4 mm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 25/1–4.
[FTEA]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Balloon Vine, Balloon vine, Black winter cherry, Heart pea, Heart seed

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0