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This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Africa, Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.
Holarrhena pubescens

[FZ]

Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg and F. K. Kupicha et al.. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, 0·60–18 m. high; trunk 12–25 cm. in diam.; bark smooth and more or less distinctly lenticellate or rough and corky, longitudinally fissured, pale to dark grey; inner bark pale buff, with green outer layer, wood soft.
Morphology Branches
Branches lenticellate; branchlets pubescent or less often glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves very variable in shape and size; petiole pubescent or less often glabrous, 0·2–12 mm. long; lamina ovate to elliptic or narrowly so, 1·7–19·5 x 1·3–11·2 cm., acuminate or acute at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, pubescent to glabrous on either side: if hairy usually more so beneath; lamina of the leaves of the first pair or the first two pairs of a branchlet often subcircular, rounded or obtuse at the apex and smaller; on each side of the midrib with 5–25 secondary veins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually apparently axillary or leaf-opposed, sometimes terminal, fairly lax.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncle, branches and pedicels pubescent or less often glabrous; peduncle 0·9–1·7 cm. long; bracts linear, pubescent or less often glabrous on both sides.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (1)2–12 x 0·5–1·7 mm., elliptic to linear, pubescent outside, often only towards the apex, indumentum a mixture of eglandular and glandular hairs, less often entirely glabrous, inside pubescent with eglandular hairs all over or only at the apex and then the basal 0·5–3 mm. glabrous, or less often entirely glabrous, ciliate, with 0–10 colleters inside at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 20–38 mm. long; tube white 9–19 mm. long, pubescent outside with eglandular and also some glandular hairs except for the basal 0·5–3 mm., sometimes entirely glabrous, inside pubescent from the throat to the insertion of the stamens; lobes white, narrowly triangular, 10–24(30) x 3–8 mm., recurved, pubescent and ciliate or glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers narrowly triangular, 0·8–1·8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistil 1·8–3·1 mm. long; ovary 0·7–1·2 x 0·5–1·0 mm. glabrous; style 0·3–1·2 x 0·2–0·3 mm., shortly pubescent at the apex or entirely glabrous; clavuncula 0-3-1-2 X 0·2–0·5 mm., shortly pubescent or less often glabrous; stigma 0·1–0·3 mm. long, shortly pubescent or glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits pale grey to dark brown; carpels pendulous, 20–37·5 cm. long, 2–9 mm. in diam., outside sometimes many lenticels or white-dotted or -spotted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 9–16 mm. long, with a dense, 25–45 mm. long tuft of hairs at the apex.

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree 0.6–18 m high, deciduous; trunk 12–25 cm in diameter; bark smooth, lenticellate or rough and corky, pale to dark grey; wood soft; branchlets pubescent, rarely glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade ovate to elliptic, 1.7–23 cm long, 1.3–11.5 cm wide, acuminate or acute at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, pubescent to glabrous; petiole 2–12 mm long, often pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences seemingly axillary or leaf-opposed, sometimes terminal, mostly pubescent; bracts 1.5–4.5 mm long; peduncle 0.9–1.7 cm long; pedicels 0.3–3 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers with sepals elliptic to linear, 2–12 mm long; corolla tube white, 9–19 mm long, outside with ordinary and glandular hairs, rarely glabrous; lobes white, narrowly triangular, 10–24(–30) mm long, 3–8 mm wide, pubescent and ciliate or glabrous; stamens inserted at 1.5–2.5 mm from the base of the tube; pistil 1.8–3.1 mm long; style 0.3–1.2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits pale grey to dark brown, dotted with white, 20–38 cm long, 2–9 mm in diameter; seeds 9–16 mm long; tufts of hairs 25–45 mm long.
Figures
Fig. 31 (p. 91).
Habitat
Deciduous forest, riverine forest, woodland, evergreen bushland; 0–1250 m
Distribution
K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

Doubtfully present in:

Malaya

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, East Himalaya, India, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

China Southeast, Hainan, Mauritius, Taiwan

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2018 Monyrak [104], Cambodia K001325013
Jan 1, 2007 Festo, L. [2776], Kenya K000197463
Jan 1, 1980 Fischer [378], Tanzania K000233824 lectotype
Jan 1, 1980 Wight, R. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000857434 isotype
Jan 1, 1980 s.coll. [1672] K000857440
Jan 1, 1980 Wight, R. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000857433 holotype
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], Myanmar K001113794
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], Myanmar K001113795
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1673] K001113798
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], India K001113786
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], Nepal K001113789
Kamrup [Cat. no. 1673], India K001113792
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 1673], Myanmar K001113796
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], Myanmar K001113793
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1673] K001113797
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], India K001113787
Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 1673], India K001113791
Ridley, H.N. [14982], Peninsular Malaysia K000857435 lectotype
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], Nepal K001113790
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1673], Nepal K001113788
Jan 1, 1926 s.coll. [107], Karnataka Holarrhena antidysenterica K000857439
Marcan, A. [951], Thailand Holarrhena antidysenterica K000857427 paratype
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113782
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113776
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113780
Kerr, A.F.G. [21523], Thailand Holarrhena antidysenterica K000857429 paratype
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113777
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113775
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113773
s.coll. [1673], Nepal Holarrhena antidysenterica K000857438
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113771
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113784
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1672], India Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113772
Spire, C.J. [34], Laos Holarrhena antidysenterica K000857428
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001114090
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113785
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113778
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113783
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 1672], Bangladesh Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113781
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113774
Kerr, A.F.G. [21523], Thailand Holarrhena antidysenterica K000857430 paratype
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1672] Holarrhena antidysenterica K001113779
Tanner, R. [323], Tanzania Holarrhena febrifuga 5084.000

First published in Gen. Hist. 4: 78 (1837)

Accepted by

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Humphreys, A.M., Govaerts, R., Ficinski, S.Z., Nic Lughadha, E. & Vorontsova, M.S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047.
  • Middleton, D.J. (2007). Apocynaceae (subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae) Flora Malesiana 18: 1-474. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Middleton, D.J. (2011). Flora of peninsular Malaysia, II, 2: 1-235. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia.
  • Middleton, D.J. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 33: 1-276. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Nasir, Y. (1991). Threatened plants of Pakistan Plant life of South Asia: 229-234.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Middleton, D.J. (2007). Apocynaceae (subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae) Flora Malesiana 18: 1-474. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 480, ill., map (1994).
  • Codd in Flora of Southern Africa 26: 263 (1963).
  • G. Don, Gen. Syst.: 78 (1837).
  • de Kruif in Flora Zambesiaca 7, 2: 456 (1985).
  • de Kruif in Meded. Landbouwhogeschool 81 (2): 17, t. 5 (1981)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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