Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don

First published in Gen. Hist. 4: 78 (1837)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Kenya to S. Africa, Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg and F. K. Kupicha et al.. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, 0·60–18 m. high; trunk 12–25 cm. in diam.; bark smooth and more or less distinctly lenticellate or rough and corky, longitudinally fissured, pale to dark grey; inner bark pale buff, with green outer layer, wood soft.
Morphology Branches
Branches lenticellate; branchlets pubescent or less often glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves very variable in shape and size; petiole pubescent or less often glabrous, 0·2–12 mm. long; lamina ovate to elliptic or narrowly so, 1·7–19·5 x 1·3–11·2 cm., acuminate or acute at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, pubescent to glabrous on either side: if hairy usually more so beneath; lamina of the leaves of the first pair or the first two pairs of a branchlet often subcircular, rounded or obtuse at the apex and smaller; on each side of the midrib with 5–25 secondary veins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually apparently axillary or leaf-opposed, sometimes terminal, fairly lax.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncle, branches and pedicels pubescent or less often glabrous; peduncle 0·9–1·7 cm. long; bracts linear, pubescent or less often glabrous on both sides.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (1)2–12 x 0·5–1·7 mm., elliptic to linear, pubescent outside, often only towards the apex, indumentum a mixture of eglandular and glandular hairs, less often entirely glabrous, inside pubescent with eglandular hairs all over or only at the apex and then the basal 0·5–3 mm. glabrous, or less often entirely glabrous, ciliate, with 0–10 colleters inside at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 20–38 mm. long; tube white 9–19 mm. long, pubescent outside with eglandular and also some glandular hairs except for the basal 0·5–3 mm., sometimes entirely glabrous, inside pubescent from the throat to the insertion of the stamens; lobes white, narrowly triangular, 10–24(30) x 3–8 mm., recurved, pubescent and ciliate or glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers narrowly triangular, 0·8–1·8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistil 1·8–3·1 mm. long; ovary 0·7–1·2 x 0·5–1·0 mm. glabrous; style 0·3–1·2 x 0·2–0·3 mm., shortly pubescent at the apex or entirely glabrous; clavuncula 0-3-1-2 X 0·2–0·5 mm., shortly pubescent or less often glabrous; stigma 0·1–0·3 mm. long, shortly pubescent or glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits pale grey to dark brown; carpels pendulous, 20–37·5 cm. long, 2–9 mm. in diam., outside sometimes many lenticels or white-dotted or -spotted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 9–16 mm. long, with a dense, 25–45 mm. long tuft of hairs at the apex.
[FZ]

Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree 0.6–18 m high, deciduous; trunk 12–25 cm in diameter; bark smooth, lenticellate or rough and corky, pale to dark grey; wood soft; branchlets pubescent, rarely glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade ovate to elliptic, 1.7–23 cm long, 1.3–11.5 cm wide, acuminate or acute at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, pubescent to glabrous; petiole 2–12 mm long, often pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences seemingly axillary or leaf-opposed, sometimes terminal, mostly pubescent; bracts 1.5–4.5 mm long; peduncle 0.9–1.7 cm long; pedicels 0.3–3 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers with sepals elliptic to linear, 2–12 mm long; corolla tube white, 9–19 mm long, outside with ordinary and glandular hairs, rarely glabrous; lobes white, narrowly triangular, 10–24(–30) mm long, 3–8 mm wide, pubescent and ciliate or glabrous; stamens inserted at 1.5–2.5 mm from the base of the tube; pistil 1.8–3.1 mm long; style 0.3–1.2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits pale grey to dark brown, dotted with white, 20–38 cm long, 2–9 mm in diameter; seeds 9–16 mm long; tufts of hairs 25–45 mm long.
Figures
Fig. 31 (p. 91).
Habitat
Deciduous forest, riverine forest, woodland, evergreen bushland; 0–1250 m
Distribution
K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
[FTEA]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/33988/142382437

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images