Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze

First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 458 (1891)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & S. Africa to Philippines. It is a hemiparasitic annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: South Africa, Cape of Good Hope, Bulow s.n., type not designated
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb 13–38 cm high.
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, simple or sparingly branched above, occasionally with numerous lateral branches, terete or quadrangular with furrows, variously pilose to hispid with patent or retrorse hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile to shortly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate or ovate to broadly ovate to suborbicular, 12–32 mm long, 6–12(–18) mm wide, lower leaves rounded at the base and apex, upper cuneate at base and acute at apex, margins coarsely acutely toothed, 3(–5)veined from the base, hispid above and on veins beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary in leaf axils forming congested inflorescense; bracts leaf-like, coarsely toothed, hispid to subglabrous; pedicels 0–0.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx subequal, 6–8 mm long, lobes 3–5 mm, acutely acuminate, ciliate on the veins and margins, 10-veined
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale yellow with purplish veins, 8–10 mm, soon withering and persisting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal; upper 2 filaments glabrous, lower 2 bearded; anthers apiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, ± 5 mm in diameter, glabrous
Figures
Fig 33, p 113
Ecology
Montane and submontane grassland, rocky grassy slopes, riverine and secondary forest, forest margins, swampy and moist places; 0–2750 m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC); widespread
Note
An extremely variable species with an Africa-wide distribution. The species has been variously separated into varieties based on leaf-shape and pubescence. I (S.A.G.) have seen a lot of material both from W and E Africa and have found it very difficult to separate the varieties as recognized by Hepper (op. cit.) and Philcox (op. cit.). The type variety, recognized on the pubescence of the calyx and on the filaments being either all glabrous or only the longer two bearded is restricted to Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, S Africa and Madagascar.
Distribution
Range: West Africa from Senegal to Sudan and Ethiopia and south to Angola and Botswana, S Asia Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8
[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual, (5)15–50(60) cm. tall; stems straight, slender to stout, simple orbranched, pilose to variously hispid.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, alternate within inflorescence, 14–25(55) x 8–18(28) mm., shape very varied from circular to ovate to broadly or narrowly lanceolate, subentire or crenate to coarsely toothed, acute or obtuse, sessile or subsessile to shortly petiolate, acute, cuneate, rounded to cordate at base, appressed or subappressed to spreading, hispid to subglabrous.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 0–2(3) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary in axils of leaves or leaf-like bracts; pedicels absent or about 0.5 mm. long, rarely up to 1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts leaf-like, longer or shorter than flowers, usually coarsely toothed, coarsely hairy to subglabrous, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles linear, subulate to filiform, equalling or slightly shorter than calyx, hairy ciliate to glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–8 mm. long, 10-nerved, glabrous to ciliate on nerves and margins of lobes, very rarely overall; lobes 3–5 mm. long, subequal, triangular, acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale yellow to dull orange, at times with reddish-purple venation, campanulate, early marcescent, slightly or up to one third longer than calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, longer filaments bearded, very rarely all glabrous; anther thecae apiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule about 5.5 x 5.5 mm., spherical, glabrous.
Note
This is a very complicated species which has, in the main, been clarified by Hepper (in Kew Bull. 14: 405, 1960). In this work he acknowledges three varieties encompassing most of the names which have represented elements of this complex over the years. For the purpose of this work I have chosen to follow his treatment and apply his criteria here.
[FZ]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs, erect, up to 36 cm high; stem simple or branched at base
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate, 2–5 x 0.8–1.1 cm, obtuse or subtruncate, irregularly dentate, prominently 3-nerved, strongly scabrid with tubercle-based hairs on both surfaces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers subsessile in spikes at ends of branches; bracts 2.5–3 x 0.5–0.7 cm, longer than flowers, lanceolate, obtuse, entire or denticulate; bracteoles 7–8(–13) x 0.5–2 mm, linear to lanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 1–1.5 cm long, hispid/scabrid with tuberculate hairs; lobes 0.8–0.9 cm long, deltoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow to orange with purple striations (1–)1.1–15 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments glabrous; thecae of anthers apiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3.2–3.6 x 3.1–3.5 cm, globose.
Distribution
N1
Ecology
Altitude range 1450–1850 m.
[FSOM]

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: Ethiopia, Mt Ambazion near Geraz, Schimper 1094 (K!, holo.; K!, P!, iso.)
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb (9–)15–45 cm high.
Morphology Stem
Stems purplish, erect, simple or with several branches arising about midway, generally terete with furrows, pilose to hispid with fine and bulbous-based retrorse hairs.
Morphology Roots
Roots orange
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, ovate to ovatelanceolate, (5–)10–15(–25) mm long, (2–)3–11(–15) mm wide, base rounded or caudate, apex rounded to acute, margins entire with 2–3 coarse teeth on each side, thick, with bulbous-based coarse hairs, 3–5-veined, hispid to ± glabrous on surfaces, hairs coarse or fine, ± retrorse; petiole 0.5–2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of terminal racemes, generally compact; flowers solitary in the axils of leaf-like bracts; bracts oblong-ovate to ovate, 10–12 mm long, with 1–3 prominent veins, entire or with 1–3 teeth, teeth sometimes acuminate, margins with bulbous-based hairs; bracteoles ovate, acute or obtuse; pedicels 0.5–2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–8 mm long, 10-veined, ± glabrous to pubescent with ± bulbous-based hairs on the margins and veins; lobes ovate, 2.5–3 mm, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow with purplish veins, 12–16 mm long, lobed above with rounded, ± equal lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal; filaments glabrous; anthers shortly apiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid, 5–6 mm long, ± 3 mm in diameter, glabrous.
Ecology
Wet and upland grassland; 1200–2900 m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC); common and widespread
Distribution
Range: Ethiopia, Somalia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe Flora districts: U1 U3 U4 K2 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T7 T8
[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual (10)20–55 cm. tall; stems erect, branched, scabrid.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subopposite or alternate, 10–25 x 2.5–6 mm., lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or narrowly ovate, sessile, roughly hispid-scabrid on both surfaces with hairs having large white tubercles at base, irregularly dentate, subprominently 3-nerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers almost sessile in subcompact spikes at ends of branches, individual flowers in axils of leaf-like bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts longer than flowers, lanceolate, usually 1–3-toothed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles up to 6 mm. long, linear or lanceolate, almost equalling calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–8 mm. long, subprominently 10-nerved, hispid especially on nerves; lobes 3.5–6 mm. long, deltoid, densely hispid-scabrid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow to orange-yellow with purplish striations.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments all glabrous; anther thecae shortly apiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3–3.5 mm. long, 3–3.5 mm. in diam., globose.
[FZ]

Uses

Use
None recorded on specimens from our area
[FTEA]

Use
None recorded on specimens from our area
[FTEA]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/