Cycnium tubulosum (L.f.) Engl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

[FZ]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Erect, decumbent, ascending or straggling perennial herb or more rarely, annual, branched or simple with a woody tuberous rhizome; stems 5–40(70) cm. long; whole plant, except corolla, glabrescent, hispid or pubescent, smooth or verrucose.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 70(100) mm. long, linear to ovate, sometimes rudimentary below, apex acute or obtuse, entire or irregularly toothed or lobed, veins 1–3 somewhat parallel, pinnately nerved in broader leaves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence racemose or flowers solitary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 2–50(90) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles absent or present, 0–10(20) mm. long, varied in shape, variously inserted on pedicels or adnate to base of calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5–40 mm. long, campanulate or shortly tubular, becoming campanulate to broadly campanulate in fruit; tube 3–10(23) mm. long, ribbed or not; lobes (4)5, equal, 2–12(18) mm. long, ovate to filiform, erect, reflexed or recoiled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink; tube (12)14–55 mm. long, curved or straight, glandular without; limb (9)15–70 mm. in diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments of shorter stamens 3–6 mm. long, of the larger 5–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 2–45 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2.5–4 mm. long, compressed-ovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 4–11 mm. long including compressed stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 4–15 mm. long including beak, winged, dehiscent mainly along upper suture.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Mostly a perennial erect or ascending herb, up to 40 cm or more high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves linear to ovate, up to 70(–100) mm long, acute or obtuse, with entire to irregularly toothed or lobed margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in racemes or solitary; pedicels 2–50(–90) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes (4–)5, ovate to linear, 2–12(–18) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink; tube curved or straight, 14–55 mm long; limb 15–70 mm in diam. Capsule 4–8 mm long, obliquely beaked.
Distribution
S2, 3 widespread in tropical and southern Africa.
Ecology
Altitude range 5–30 m.
Note
The Somali plant is the widespread subsp. tubulosum; subsp. montanum (N.E. Br.) O. Hansen occurs in the highlands of eastern Africa.

[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: South Africa, Thunberg (UPS!, IDC-microfiche, holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial or rarely annual herb with woody tuberous or elongated rhizome.
Morphology Stem
Stems decumbent, ascending, erect or straggling, 5–40(–70) cm long. Stems, leaves and calyx glabrescent, pubescent or hispid, smooth or verrucose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves linear to ovate, 1–7(–10) cm long, 2–4 mm wide, the lower ones sometimes rudimentary; apex acute or obtuse, margins entire or irregularly toothed or lobed; venation inconspicuous or of 1–3 ± parallel veins in narrow leaves or pinnate in broader leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary (in decumbent plants) or in racemes; bracteoles absent or present, variable in shape, 0–10(–20) mm long, variously inserted on the pedicels or adnate to the base of the calyx tube; pedicels 2–50(–90) mm long, axillary or supra-axillary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate or shortly tubular, in fruiting state campanulate to broadly campanulate; tube 3–10(–23) mm long, ribbed or not; lobes (4–)5, variable in shape from ovate to linear-filiform, 2–12(–18) mm long, equal, erect, reflexed or recoiled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink; tube curved or straight, 14–55 mm long, glandular outside; limb 15–70 mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments of the shorter pair of stamens 3–6 mm long, those of the longer pair 5–10 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 2–4.5 mm long, apiculate or rounded at tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary compressed, ± obliquely ovate, 2.5–4 mm long; style 4–11 mm long, including the 2–4 mm long terete or compressed stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule obliquely beaked, globose or obliquely ovoid, 4–8 mm long; distal suture of beak 6–15 mm long; winged and dehiscent mainly along the upper-distal suture
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 0.7–1 mm long, testa reticulate.
Note
This is a polymorphic species in which Hansen recognised two subspecies characterised by differences in indumentum, habit, size and arrangenent of the flowers There are several specimens from Kenya and Tanzania that show characters intermediate between the two subspecies (e.g Richards 8586, Glover, Gwyne & Samuel 877, Kirika 179, Gillett 12795) and are also sympatric in distribution with the two subspecies I (S.A.G.) would be more tempted to recognize C tubulosum as one polymorphic species for the FTEA region, but here follow Hansen’s treatment as it is based on his studies throughout the range of the taxa:

[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: Zimbabwe [Rhodesia] , Elliot s.n. (K!, lecto.). Fig. 42: 5, p. 161.
Ecology
In grassland (damp or dry), reported from a wide range of soils; the commonest Cycnium in East Africa, flowering throughout the year; (0–)200–2600(–3000) m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC); widespread and common
Distribution
Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

[FWTA]

Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
An erect herb 1-2 ft. high, sparingly branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers blue, pink or white, fragrant
Ecology
In wet grassland
Note
Drying black.

[FTEA]
Use
None recorded on specimens from our area

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Vlei ink-flower

Cycnium tubulosum (L.f.) Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 2010 Bingham, M.G. [13341], Zambia K000546002 No
May 7, 1976 Buchwald, J. [514], Tanzania Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000379715 Yes
Apr 28, 1976 Smith, C.S. [s.n.], Tanzania Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000379716 Unknown type material Yes
Apr 28, 1976 Bryce, J. [s.n.], South Africa Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000425518 Unknown type material Yes
Apr 27, 1976 Cecil, E. [90], Zimbabwe Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000379707 Yes
Apr 27, 1976 Elliot, W. [s.n.], Zimbabwe Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000379706 Unknown type material Yes
Ash [39], Ethiopia Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum 51051.000 No
Bidgood, S. [6253], Tanzania Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000468172 No
Bidgood, S. [6135], Tanzania Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000468290 No
Bidgood, S. [6168], Tanzania Cycnium tubulosum subsp. montanum K000468257 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [4174], Angola Rhamphicarpa tubulosa 11238.000 No
Hemsley, J.H. [1818], Tanzania Rhamphicarpa tubulosa 2583.000 No

First published in Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 361 (1895)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.Z. (2): 138 (1990)
  • Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 5: 301 (2006).
  • P.O.A. C: 361 (1895)
  • U.K.W.F.: 260, pl. 112 (1994)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

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  • Flora of Somalia

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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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