Peliostomum leucorrhizum E.Mey. ex Benth.

This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Africa.

[KBu]

Kolberg H., van Salgeren M. 2016. A synopsis of Aptosimum and Peliostomum (Scrophulariaceae) in Namibia, including the description of a new species, Aptosimum radiatum, and keys to all accepted species. Kew Bulletin 71:16. DOI 10.1007/S12225-016-9628-7

Conservation
This very widespread species is evaluated as LC here since the EOO and AOO are well above the thresholds for the threatened categories and no additional two criteria are met under criterion B (IUCN 2012, 2013). In South Africa the species has also been evaluated as LC (SANBI 2014).
Ecology
Grows in gravelly to sandy soil of diverse origin, including calcrete, dolerite and granite on plains, slopes, in valleys and watercourses. Recorded from the Kalahari savanna, pans, Karstveld, shrubland, highland savanna, highland shrubland, escarpment and inselbergs, dwarf shrub savanna, desert-dwarf shrub savanna transition, dwarf shrub savanna – Kalahari transition, desert and succulent steppe vegetation types (Mendelsohn et al. 2010). Occurring in the Kaokoveld, Welwitschia Desert, Zambesian Domain, Namib Dune, Southern Namib Succulent Desert, Escarpment, Highlands (to 1500 and 1800 m), Huns-Orange, Gordonia and Kalahari Sands phytogeographical regions of Craven (2009). Altitude: 40 – 2095 m.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub, erect to ascending, 7 – 50 cm tall, sometimes barely woody, not spinescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ascending or spreading, narrowly linear-lanceolate, linear, ovate, oblong-obovate, oblong-lanceolate, linear-lanceolate to linear-obovate, (3 –) 15 – 33 (– 38) × 1 – 5 mm, glabrous, subglabrous, minutely puberulent to sparsely glandular pubescent; apex obtuse, subobtuse to acute; base sessile, subsessile to tapering into a 1 – 2 mm long petiole; midrib indistinct
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, along terminal parts of stems, pedicellate; pedicel 1 – 2.5 mm long; bracteoles linear, scale-like, minute, 0.25 – 2 × 0.1 – 0.25 mm, arising near base of pedicel, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, not exserted from corolla; filaments glabrous, longer pair 12 – 14 mm long, shorter pair 5 – 12 mm long; anthers equal, minutely pubescent to long white ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobed to base, 2 – 5 (– 7.5) mm long; lobes narrowly linear to linear-lanceolate, shorter than capsule, 5 – 6 × 0.25 – 0.5 mm, apex acute to subulate, glabrous, minutely papillose and glandular-pubescent outside and papillose inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 12 – 20 mm long, glabrous, sparsely minutely stipitate-glandular to sparsely glandular-pubescent outside; tube funnel-shaped, narrow basally, widening gradually towards mouth, narrow part from much shorter than to longer than calyx, 5 – 8 (– 16) mm long, 2 – 4 mm diam at mouth, mouth slightly oblique, whitish, pale blue, violet to purple with darker venation outside; lobes subcircular, lower c. 4 × 4 mm, others c. 3 × 3 mm, inside blue, violet to purple with darker patch at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary papillose with some stipitate glands; style papillose at base; stigma capitate, extending to corolla mouth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule narrowly ovoid, ovoid-oblong to conical, 5 – 9 × 2.5 – 3 mm, slightly longer than to much longer than calyx; apex subobtuse, shortly beaked to scarcely acute and slightly compressed, minutely papillose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed reniform, pyramidal to irregular-shaped, irregularly tuberculate, rugose or ridged, cream to orange-brown
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, slender, rigid, much-branched near ground level, sparsely branched above, quadrangular, longitudinally ridged or grooved towards apex, to 1.5 mm diam., glabrous, subglabrous, minutely scaberulous to sparsely glandular-pubescent on green parts; bark white, corky at base
Note
Bentham worked from Kew and type specimens seen by him are therefore expected to be in K, but we could not find a Drège specimen of Peliostomum leucorrhizum from the type locality in this herbarium. Drège s.n. (P-3412911) is selected as lectotype here because it is a complete, good quality specimen and has a label in the collector’s handwriting. Rautanen 38 at Z is selected as lectotype of P. leucorrhizum var. linearifolium over the only other syntype that could be found, Fleck 155a (Z), because of the better quality of the specimen.

As already noted by Merxmüller & Roessler (1967: 38), the distinction between Peliostomum leucorrhizum and P. lugardiae is very difficult, if not impossible, especially in specimens from central Namibia. Leaf shape gradually changes from short and ovate to lanceolate in the south of the country (closer to P. leucorrhizum) to longer and narrowly lanceolate or linear in the north (closer to P. lugardiae). The anthers of P. leucorrhizum are not always so clearly long ciliate or bearded that they could always be separated from the shortly pubescent anthers of P. lugardiae. We therefore concur with Merxmüller & Roessler and treat P. lugardiae as synonym of the older P. leucorrhizum.

Phenology
Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Peak flowering: Feb. – Sept. Peak fruiting: March – Sept.
Type
Type: South Africa, on the Gariep [III b 7], Drège s.n. (lectotype P-3412911!, selected here; isolectotypes HBG-512065!, P-4432491!, REG-481!, S-08-269!, S-G-4655!).
Vernacular
Rotzunge, Blauglöckchen (German, Namibia); taa (Naro, Namibia).

[FZ]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Erect, rigid, much-branched undershrub or perennial herb, 15–38 cm. tall, usually with thick rootstock; stem above longitudinally ridged or somewhat quadrangular, minutely glandular-pubescent; stem below, base of branches and rootstock often covered with white corky layer.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves (5)15–33(38) x 1–1.5 mm., narrowly linear-lanceolate or linear, acute or subobtuse, subglabrous to minutely puberulent, entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary-pedicellate; bracteoles 1–2 mm. long, 0.1–0.25 mm. wide, arising at or towards base of pedicel, linear, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 1–1.75 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–5(7.5) mm. long, lobes joined only at base, 0.25–0.5 mm. wide, linear, acute, minutely puberulent with short glandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue to purple or mauve, tube 5–8(10.5) mm. long, funnel-shaped, narrowed at base, much wider above, mouth slightly oblique, sparsely minutely stipitate-glandular to glabrous without; lobes subcircular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers sparsely pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (5)7(8.5) x 2.5–3 mm., ovoid-oblong, acute to subobtuse, minutely papillose, not strongly and markedly reticulate-veined.

[KBu]
Use
Some unspecified medicinal uses of the plant have been reported (Steyn 1981).

Doubtfully present in:

Botswana

Native to:

Cape Provinces, Free State, Namibia, Northern Provinces

Peliostomum leucorrhizum E.Mey. ex Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Lugard, E.J. [124], Botswana Aptosimum lugardiae K000410924 holotype Yes

First published in Edwards's Bot. Reg. 22: t. 1882 (1836)

Accepted by

  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Kolberg, H. & van Slageren, M. (2016). A synopsis of Aptosimum and Peliostomum (Scrophulariaceae) in Namibia, including the description of a new species, Aptosimum radiatum, and keys to all accepted species Kew Bulletin 71(16): 1-50. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • (Bentham 1836: sub t. 1882
  • Bentham 1846: 346
  • Drège (1846: 198)
  • Hemsley & Skan (1906: 274)
  • Hiern (1904: 135)
  • Merxmüller & Roessler (1967: 38)
  • Smithies & Ready 2003: 891.
  • Weber 1907: 85

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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