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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Venezuela.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: raised at the Chiswick Gardens seeds collected by Skinner in Chimalapa, Guatemala, Lindley s.n. (CGE!, holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, sometimes climbing or sprawling, occasionally herbaceous, 1–6.5 m high.
Morphology Stem
Stems laxly or densely branched, branches often lenticellate, sparsely pilose to glabrescent with scattered simple or branched eglandular hairs mixed with stalked glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pale to dark green with yellowish venation, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 6–11.4 × 2–5.6 cm, bases cuneate, margins entire, apices acute to acuminate, both surfaces usually glabrescent, sometimes coriaceous, pseudostipulate; petioles (1–)2–4 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or lateral lax leafy cymes, racemes or panicles, sometimes subspicate; flowering stems glabrescent to sparsely pilose; flowers often pleasantly fragrant; pedicels 0–1.8 mm long, sparsely to moderately pilose, with apical abscission layer; bracteoles to 11 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx narrowly tubular, 6–10 × 2–3.5 mm, glabrous to sparsely pilose externally, lobes narrowly triangular becoming subulate (ligulate) above, margins tightly inrolled with lobes extending downwards as five dark coloured veins throughout the calyx, acute, usually unequal, 1–4 × 0.2–1.5 mm, usually shortly pilose with ciliate margins in flower, enlarging to 7–8 mm broad, becoming cupulate, accrescent and glabrescent externally in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually orange to bright yellow occasionally yellowish-red, unscented, salverform to urceolate, 1.8–2.5 cm long and 0.7–1.2 cm diameter apically, tube 1.1–2 cm long, narrow basally increasing up to 6.5 mm above, glabrescent externally, pilose internally; lobes broadly to narrowly triangular, often apiculate, spreading or reflexed and ovate after anthesis, 3.5–6 × 2–4.5 mm, glabrescent externally apart from densely pilose inrolled marginal bands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 5–9 mm, curved apically; anthers yellow to orange, 0.6–1.3 × 0.6–1 mm. Ovary brownish, ovoid, 0.7–1.3 mm long; disc cupulate, 1–1.8 mm broad; style 1–1.9 cm long, usually exserted; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berry subsessile, white, cream or yellow, ovoid, 5–12 × 5–9 mm, pericarp sometimes splitting apically to expose seeds, partially or completely enclosed by cupulate calyx, which eventually splitting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–5(–8) per berry, dark brown or blackish, ellipsoidal, prismatic, usually curved, 3–5.5 × 2–4 mm, small vestigial or abortive seeds also present
Figures
Fig 1/1–9, p 11
Ecology
Cultivated, also an escape in neglected gardens, old cultivations, roadsides and disturbed montane forest; 850–2600 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
Commonly known as Orange or Yellow Cestrum, this species is widely grown for its showy flowers. It is notoriously toxic to animals and especially poisonous to cattle.  Two specimens, Magogo 206 and Mwakalinga 6, are superficially similar to C. aurantiacum especially in their calyx morphology. However, the flowers were reportedly blue in the former and pink in the latter (with the berries also being cited as purple). Both were collected from Lushoto ( T 3) which is notorious for morphological oddities; they are possibly of hybrid origin derived from C. elegans and C. aurantiacum. The Magogo specimen is distinctly hirsute with hairs exhibiting coloured interstices, has short petioles and the purple-coloured calyx typical of C. elegans, while the Mwakalinga specimen is glabrescent and more morphologically similar to C. aurantiacum.
Distribution
Flora districts: K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T7 Range: Native to Mexico, Guatamala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica but now widely cultivated throughout Africa Range: Also in India, Europe and Australia

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type a plant flowering in the Chiswick Garden, near London (SE England), in viii.1844, raised from seed obtained by Skinner, from Chimalapa (Guatemala); no specimen now known.
Morphology General Habit
Erect or drooping, often ± climbing or straggling, slender, densely much branched, very beautiful shrub or small tree up to 3(6) m, glabrous apart from yellow hairs on youngest axes
Morphology Branches
Branches angular at first, then ± terete, dark ash-grey or greenish, dark reddish-brown towards the ends; bark longitudinally striate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or in pairs; petiole 0.5–3.5(4) cm long; lamina membranous, 3.5–11. 5 × 1. 5–6 cm, oblong to ovate or lanceolate, base sub-rounded to acute, unequal-sided or ± equal-sided, usually decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or acuminate, recurved, occasionally obtuse or rounded, entire or ± undulate, both surfaces smooth, glabrous and multinerved; stipuliform leaves 2–4 × 0.7–1. 5 cm, lanceolate, apically acuminate, ± pubescent, deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, compound, leafy, paniculiform, 5–10 cm long, the 2–4 distal flowers often clustered and subsessile; leafy bracts 3–25 × 2–10 mm, ovate to linear-lanceolate; peduncle 1–3.5 cm long; pedicels up to 3(5) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pleasantly scented
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 7–10(11) mm long, 2.5–5 mm wide, tubular or long-campanulate, 5-ribbed, striate, shining and glabrous outside, puberulous inside; teeth unequal or subequal, 2–2.5 × 0.2–0.8 mm, narrowly lanceolate, acute to often long-subulate, ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow to orange, 20–30 mm long, infundibuliform, constricted at the throat, glabrous; limb 6–12 mm across, 5(6)-parted; lobes 3–5 × 1. 2–4.5 mm, broadly ovate to ± triangular, mucronate, more rarely acuminate, involute at the margins, spreading or reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5(6), subequal, included; filaments inserted at or above the middle of corolla tube, free for 5–6.5 mm, thickened, often geniculate, and denticulate somewhat below the insertion or just above, glabrous or pubescent at the base; anthers c.  1 × 0.8 mm, sub-rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk annular, 0.6–0.8 mm high, undulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 5 × 1. 3 mm, globose or obovoid, glabrous, often few-ovulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 12–16 mm long, filiform, straight, with minute hairs upwards, included or slightly exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit snow-white to bright yellow, 10–15(20) × 5–8 mm, ± globose, pyriform or oblong, with a cross-shaped impression, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few, 2.5–5 × 0.8–3 mm, slightly convex dorsally and ± flattened ventrally, obovate in outline, muriculate
Ecology
Naturalized in Zimbabwe, forest and roadsides, also cultivated; sea level to 1524 m.
Note
Common name: “Yellow Cestrum” or “Orange-coloured Cestrum”. Poisonous.
Distribution
Zambia ZAM C, ZIM E, MOZ M Originally from southern Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, now widely cultivated, in Africa also recorded from East Africa, South Africa and Swaziland, sometimes as a weed, and commonly cultivated as a garden ornamental or as a hedge. Mozambique Zimbabwe

Native to:

Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Bangladesh, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hawaii, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mauritius, Mozambique, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Northern Provinces, Queensland, Réunion, Swaziland, Tanzania, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2000 s.coll. [2198], Costa Rica K000585061 isotype
Peru Cestrum auriculatum K000585206
Peru Cestrum auriculatum K000585208
Nation, W. [s.n.], Peru Cestrum auriculatum K000585207
Heyde [3135], Guatemala Cestrum paucinervium K000585063

First published in Edwards's Bot. Reg. 30(Misc.): 71 (1844)

Accepted by

  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 603 (1852).
  • Bates, Ingram & Moore (eds.), Hortus Third: 253 (1976).
  • Bot. Reg. 30: 71 (1844); 31: t. 22 (1845).
  • Candollea 6: 102 (1935).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 53: 141 (1986).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 177 (1987).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 309 (1972).
  • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Africa: 161, fig. 15 (1969).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 944 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 285 (1998)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 188 (1992)
  • Candollea 6: 102 (1935)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 603 (1852)
  • Edwards’ Bot. Reg. 30: Misc. 71 (1844)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 11 (2005).
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 135 (1998)
  • U.K.W.F.: 529 (1974)
  • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 161 (1969)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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