Iochroma cyaneum (Lindl.) M.L.Green

First published in Standard-Sp. Nomina Conservanda: 54 (1926)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Ecuador to Peru. It is a shrub and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.

Descriptions

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Herb. Hort. London, introduced from Loja, Ecuador, Hartweg s.n.(K! in herb Hooker, syn.); collected from the village of Gonzanamá and the city of Loja, Ecuador, Seemann 883 (K!, syn.), typ. cons.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or woody herbs, 1–4 m tall, often laxly branched.
Morphology Stem
Stems pilose or villous with long simple or simple and branched eglandular hairs, denser on young stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves green, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5–12(–14) × 2.6–5.4(–6.6) cm, bases cuneate, margins entire to sinuate, apices acute to obtuse, moderately pilose above, floccose beneath with long simple or simple and branched hairs; petioles 1.4–6 cm long. Inflorescences congested terminal, subaxillary or axillary fascicles of 8–24+ flowers; pedicels erect or spreading, pilose or villous, 0.9–1.6(–2.7) cm long in flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx urceolate or cupulate, enclosing the basal quarter to third of corolla tube, 7–12 × 5–9 mm, with five triangular teeth 0.8–2.5 × 0.8–3.5 mm, pilose externally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually blue, mauve or purple, sometimes with a whitish throat, tubular or trumpet-shaped, 3.2–4 cm long, with throat 9–12 mm diameter, tube long and often curved, ± 5 mm wide in centre, terminating in five to ten partially reflexed apical broadly triangular lobes 0.8–2 × 1.5–3 mm; basal part of tube tapering towards base, glabrous externally becoming puberulous toward the lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually included, occasionally exserted; filaments 2.5–3.2 cm long; anthers yellow, elongate, 3–4.5 × 1–1.5 mm; often visible in corolla throat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary conical to pyriform, 2.2–5 × 1.1–2.8 mm, glabrous; style 2.7–3.2 cm long, included; stigma 0.3–1 × 0.5–1 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit pale greenish-yellow to purplish-green conical berry, 1.8–2.2 × 1.2–1.7 cm, partly enclosed by expanded split calyx, with strong fruity scent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellow, discoid, 1 × 1.5 mm, flattened and foveolate; sclerotic granules spherical to ovoid, ± 0.5–1 mm diameter
Figures
Fig 14/1–7, p 68
Ecology
An escape from gardens and arboreta, occurring on roadsides; 850–1700 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
Numerous other synonyms are given in Shaw (1998). No fruits were recorded from East African specimens, perhaps again reflecting the lack of necessary pollinators such as hummingbirds; the fruit and seed characters given above have been taken from Shaw (1998). Specimens identified as I. lanceolata Miers proved to belong to I. cyaneum, rather than to the yellow-flowered species described by Miers. Among the names used to identify East African cultivated material are Cestrum brevifolium Urb., Iochroma schlechtendalianum Dunal and I. lanceolata Miers. The latter was described as a yellow-flowered species by Miers, and although Lawrence & Tucker (1955) considered this to be a synonym of I. cyaneum, Shaw (1998) reported that the name lanceolatum had been misapplied by Hooker and synonymised it with I. gesnerioides (Kunth) Miers. He further proposed that many individuals represent hybrids between this latter species and I. cyaneum. One specimen ( Greenway 8769) whose flowers were described as “brownish red” had been identified as the red-flowered species I. coccinea Scheid. (a synonym of I. gesnerioides (Shaw, 1998)). However, Greenway collected this on the same day and from the same locality – Closeburn, Nairobi - as specimen 8772 whose flowers he recorded as being “almost black purple”. Both of these specimens are considered to belong to I. cyaneum. I have only seen one good African specimen of I. gesnerioides collected as a garden ornamental in Harare, Zimbabwe ( Biegel 5222!), whose flowers were “chinese lacquer red”. Many cultivars of I. cyaneum have been produced, and flower colour is particularly variable in this species; it is also known to alter with both maturity and drying. In addition, Shaw (1998) considered that the heterogenicity shown by this species is evidence of a hybrid origin of I. cyaneum, and that introgression from other species, including I. gesnerioides, may also have occurred, all contributing to the considerable morphological variability displayed by this species.
Distribution
Flora districts: K4 T ?2, T3 Range: Native to Andean Ecuador, widely grown as an ornamental shrub in Africa
[FTEA]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Open, laxly branched, fast growing succulent shrub, often rounded or conical, up to 4 m high and 5 m across, unarmed, with stem, branches and leaves pubescent or hairy;
Morphology Leaves
Leaves soft, pale green, floccose beneath;
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pendulous in clusters; corolla blue-purple to violet-mauve or lilac, sometimes white fringed in the tube, cylindrical;
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit light green to greenish-white
Distribution
Zimbabwe Malawi Zambia Originally from Ecuador, it is quite widely grown as a garden ornamental. Mozambique
[FZ]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images