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This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru to NW. Argentina. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Nicandra physaloides (Solanaceae)

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Plant up to 1 m or more tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade ovate or elliptic, 4–20 x 2–15 cm, cuneate at the base, obtuse to acute at the apex, with coarsely sinuate-dentate or somewhat lobed margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 1.5–4 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 15 mm in flower, up to c. 35 mm in fruit, with ovate acute lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue, 2–4 cm in diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berry 1–2 cm in diam., brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–1.2 mm in diam., pale brown.
Distribution
N2 native to Peru, cultivated widely, weedy and widely naturalised.
Ecology
Altitude range c. 1150–1750 m.
Note
First record for Somalia.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Atropa physalodes L., “Habitat in Peru”, Jussieu s.n., Herb. LINN 246.3 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Schönbeck-Temesy in Rechinger (ed.), Fl. Iranica: 2 (1972)). [See also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 340 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs 0.5–1.5(–2) m high.
Morphology Stem
Main stems erect or spreading, smooth, green to brown or purple, slender, sometimes succulent, occasionally becoming woody at the base, sparsely pilose becoming glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mid- to dark green or purplish, broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate to rhomboidal, with 2–8(–10) main acute lobes, 6–12(–38) × 3–8(–36) cm, bases cuneate, often decurrent, margin coarsely sinuate, sinuate-dentate or lacerate, apices acute to acuminate, upper surfaces glabrescent to sparsely pilose and puberulous on veins and midribs, lower surfaces usually glabrescent, margins often pilose; petioles (1–)2–4(–6) cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually solitary; pedicels dark green to purple, 1–2.4(–5) cm long, erect becoming nodding below flowers, puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx broadly conical, dark green to purple, lobes broadly ovate, 1.1–2(–3) × 0.7–1.4(–1.8) cm, bases sagittate to cordate, apices acute to acuminate, prominently veined, puberulous internally and externally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue or mauve becoming white in lower half with five blue or purple spots at base of corolla tube, often connected by purple veins from each lobe lobe through corolla tube, broadly campanulate to cyathiform with narrower basal half enclosed by calyx lobes; lobes fused almost to apex, very shallow and bilobed, 1–5 × 10–20 mm, upper half of corolla recurving to expose basal purple spots, sparsely pilose internally, puberulous externally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with filaments 4–6 mm long; anthers greenish to yellow, sometimes with distinct purple margins, obovoid to oblong, 2.4–3.5(–4) mm long. Ovary dark green to purplish, obovoid to conical, 2.5–4 × 2.3–3.5 mm; disc whitish but sometimes mottled with purple on lower half, 2.5–4.5 mm broad; style 3–4.5(–5) mm long, glabrous to pilose below; stigma yellow, 0.5–1.5 mm broad
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries smooth, green to yellow, globose, 1–2 cm diameter, enclosed by enlarged accrescent chartaceous cordate calyx lobes 2.2–3.6 × 1.3–2.2 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds mid- to dark- brown, orbicular, 1.2–1.6(–1.8) × 1.1–1.4(–1.6) mm
Figures
Fig 11, p. 55.
Ecology
A troublesome weed of cultivation, sometimes becoming a serious pest of gardens, and of wheat, maize or coffee crops; also in forests, forest clearings, secondary bushland, grassland, on wasteland and sometimes on wet or swampy soils. (130–fide
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
This species is sometimes cited as N. physalodes (L.) Scop. Although Scopoli mentioned Atropa physalodes beneath his generic protologue in 1777 (Int. Hist. Nat.: 182), he did not make the combination with Nicandra, meaning that Gaertner’s combination takes precedence. The specific epithet physalodes is often misspelt as physaloides after Gaertner. The species is commonly known as the Apple of Peru or Shoo-fly; many East African herbarium specimens have been erroneously annotated as being either the Cape Gooseberry or Chinese lantern both of which refer to Physalis. There are three sheets labelled Physalis daturaefolia in Lamarck’s herbarium (P-LA), though none are actually labelled as type specimens. The first (LM472/3) is a good flowering specimen, which also has Atropa physalodes written beneath the species name; this has been selected here as the lectotype. The second (LM472/4) is mainly vegetative with a flattened fruiting calyx, while the third (LM472/5) is only composed of leaves. Leaf size is particularly variable in this species, while seed numbers can also vary greatly, and Horton (1979) found that these ranged from 69 to 638 in just six berries. The flowers usually only open fully for a few hours around mid-day. The stems, leaves and flowers of this species are all reported to be edible, and are sold in local Tanzanian markets (Ruffo, Birnie & Tengnäs, Edible Wild Plants of Tanzania: 476 (2002)).
Distribution
Flora districts: K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T7 T8 Range: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burundi, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa and Madagascar

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Fruiting pedicel elongating to c.  4 cm Pedicel (0.6)1. 2–3(3.5) cm long, at least initially clothed with minute, 1–3-celled ± patent eglandular hairs, and also with a few many-celled glandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2.5–4.5 × 2.4–5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 4–4.8 mm long, straight
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a dry berry, pale green to yellow or brown when ripe, erect, enclosed within the enlarged calyx, 12–18 mm in diameter, gynophore up to c.  2 mm long on the base of the calyx Fruit a dry berry, pale green to yellow or brown when ripe, erect, enclosed within the enlarged calyx, 12–18 mm in diameter, gynophore up to c. 2 mm long on the base of the calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds light to dark brown, 1. 5–2 × 1. 2–1. 7 mm, sticky Seeds light to dark brown, 1.5–2 × 1.2–1.7 mm, sticky.
Note
Common name: “Apple of Peru”. Fruit poisonous. Chromosome number: 2n=20, 22
Distribution
Botswana. BOT SE, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ M Native to tropical South America (probably from Peru), now almost cosmopolitan and widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics, occurring as a weed but sometimes cultivated as a garden flower. Found throughout tropical and subtropical Africa and the Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, usually much-branched and often ± robust, (0.1)0.2–2.5(3) m high, sometimes purple tinged. Annual herb, usually much-branched and often ± robust, (0.1)0.2–2.5(3) m high, sometimes purple tinged
Morphology Branches
Branches glabrous or sparsely hairy at least around the nodes with a few simple, short hairs. Branches glabrous or sparsely hairy at least around the nodes with a few simple, short hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, membranaceous; petiole (0.5)1–7 cm long, ± winged, ± sheathing at the base; lamina (2)3–23.5(38) × (1)1.5–13.5(36) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes triangular- or rhombic-ovate, ± oblong or elliptic, broadly cuneate to attenuate or occasionally truncate to subcordate, often oblique at the base, ± decurrent on the petiole, obtuse acute or acuminate at the apex, usually irregularly and coarsely toothed or lobed on the margins, glabrous or with a few small hairs mainly above, sometimes only on the nerves and the margins. Leaves alternate, membranaceous; petiole (0.5)1–7 cm long, ± winged, ± sheathing at the base; lamina (2)3–23.5(38) × (1)1. 5–13.5(36) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes triangular- or rhombic-ovate, ± oblong or elliptic, broadly cuneate to attenuate or occasionally truncate to subcordate, often oblique at the base, ± decurrent on the petiole, obtuse acute or acuminate at the apex, usually irregularly and coarsely toothed or lobed on the margins, glabrous or with a few small hairs mainly above, sometimes only on the nerves and the margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers erect at first then nodding, inserted beside the petiole-base and appearing axillary, or axillary in the upper leaves; pedicel (0.6)1.2–3(3.5) cm long, at least initially clothed with minute, 1–3-celled ± patent eglandular hairs, and also with a few many-celled glandular hairs; fruiting pedicel elongating to c. 4 cm. Flowers erect at first then nodding, inserted beside the petiole-base and appearing axillary, or axillary in the upper leaves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx green becoming brown and chartaceous, segments 5, 9–22 mm long, ovate,± strongly cordate-sagittate at the base and ± acuminate at the apex, concave, with adjacent margins doubled back (reduplicate) forming longitudinal wings, the margins fused for almost half their length, sparsely puberulous with small glandular hairs and scattered eglandular hairs; fruiting calyx brown and papery, accrescent, (1.8)2–3.5(4) × 1.6–3.7 cm, with segments strongly reduplicate and reticulately-veined. Fruiting calyx brown and papery, accrescent, (1. 8)2–3.5(4) × 1. 6–3.7 cm, with segments strongly reduplicate and reticulately-veined Calyx green becoming brown and chartaceous, segments 5, 9–22 mm long, ovate,± strongly cordate-sagittate at the base and ± acuminate at the apex, concave, with adjacent margins doubled back (reduplicate) forming longitudinal wings, the margins fused for almost half their length, sparsely puberulous with small glandular hairs and scattered eglandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale pinkish violet or pale blue to purple on the limb and upper tube, usually whitish in lower part, (1.3)1.7–3 cm long, c. 27 mm in diameter, campanulate, with a mixture of very short glandular and eglandular hairs at least along the nerves, and also with numerous longer eglandular hairs inside the tube around the base of the filaments; tube often turning yellowish with age; limb (2)2.3–5(5.7) cm across, the lobes spreading. Corolla pale pinkish violet or pale blue to purple on the limb and upper tube, usually whitish in lower part, (1. 3)1. 7–3 cm long, c.  27 mm in diameter, campanulate, with a mixture of very short glandular and eglandular hairs at least along the nerves, and also with numerous longer eglandular hairs inside the tube around the base of the filaments; tube often turning yellowish with age; limb (2)2.3–5(5.7) cm across, the lobes spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 4–7 mm long, sometimes with long, eglandular hairs; anthers often greenish or bluish-margined, 2.5–3.5 mm long. Stamen filaments 4–7 mm long, sometimes with long, eglandular hairs; anthers often greenish or bluish-margined, 2.5–3.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2.5–4.5 × 2.4–5 mm; style 4–4.8 mm long, straight.
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=20, 22.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 2800 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb or shrub.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2800 m.; Andes, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]
Use
The plant contains alkaloids and is in various parts of the world used in traditional medicine Cultivated as an ornamental Used as an insecticide.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Chile Central, Chile North, Peru

Introduced into:

Alabama, Amur, Angola, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Galápagos, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Iran, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Oman, Palestine, Primorye, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 1, 2010 Andriamahay, M. [2324], Madagascar K000658307
Jan 1, 1999 Lefroy [s.n.] K001073100
Drummond, R.B. [2516], Tanzania 17701.000
Bourgeau, M. [979], Mexico K000063232
Botteri, M. [843], Mexico K000063233
Hinton, G.B. [1834], Mexico K000063235
Hinton, G.B. [6857], Mexico K000063236
Hinton, G.B. [9888], Mexico K000063237
Hinton, G.B. [13431], Mexico K000063238
Hinton, G.B. [5271], Mexico K000063239
Mueller, F. [307], Brazil K001073099
Arbo, M.M. [5271], Brazil K001073095
Hinton, G.B. [5271], Mexico K000063234
Agra, M.F. [1317], Brazil K001073094
Mueller, F. [153], Brazil K001073098
Heringer, E.P. [5983], Brazil K001073096
Mwachala, G. [1281], Kenya K000449281
Cope, T.A. [RBG 232], Great Britain K000914294
Glaziou, A. [4901], Brazil K001073097

First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 237 (1791)

Accepted by

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  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 434 (1852) as “physaloides”.
  • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
  • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973) as “physaloides”.
  • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968) as “physaloides”.
  • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 84 (1955).
  • F.C. 4, 2: 109 (1904) as “physaloides”.
  • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 48, t. 7 (2002). TAB. 6.
  • Fruct. 2: 237, t. 131 fig. 2 (1791) as “physaloides”.
  • Garcia de Orta 17: 277 (1969).
  • Grabandt, Weeds of Crops & Gard. South. Afr.: 129 cum fig. (1985) as “physaloides”.
  • J.M. Gibson, Wild Fl. Natal (Coast. Reg.): 91, t. 91 fig. 1 (1975) as “physaloides”.
  • Jacot Guillarmod, Fl. Lesotho: 239 (1971).
  • Kirkia 1: 62 (1961).
  • M.D. Henderson & J.G. Anderson, Common Weeds S. Afr.: 268, fig. 133 (1966).
  • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 118 (1932) as “physaloides”.
  • Martineau, Rhod. Wild Fl.: 70 (1952).
  • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 10 (1954).
  • Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 81, t. 41.3 (1975).
  • Rhod. Agric. J., Bull. 1106: 2, fig. 32 (1939) as “physaloides”.
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 307 (1972) as “physaloides”.
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 368 (1985).
  • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 107 (1953) as “physaloides”

Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
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  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
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  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
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  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
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  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
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  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Mouterde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban se de la Syrie 3: 1-578. Dar El-Machreq Sarl, Beyrouth, Liban.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1965). Flora Kazakhstana 8: 1-445. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Sluschny, H. & Schlüter, U. (2012). Zur Flora von Schwerin und Umgebung Botanischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 49: 51-59.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 434 (1852)
  • E.P.A. 2: 855 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 26 (2005)
  • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 109 (1904)
  • Fl. Egypt 3: 46 (2002)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 86 (1998)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 156 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 198 (2006)
  • Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 237 (1791), as “physaloides”
  • Garcia de Orta 17(3): 277 (1969)
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 368 (1985)
  • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
  • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0