Physalis philadelphica Lam.

First published in Encycl. 2: 101 (1786)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Mexico to Central America, Cuba to Haiti. It is an annual and grows primarily in the temperate biome.

Descriptions

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Erect, weak to sometimes ± robust, ± dichotomously branched, annual (or short-lived perennial) herb, said to reach 1. 3 m high, usually less in the Flora Zambesiaca area, ± sparsely clothed with simple, appressed to patent, eglandular and sometimes short and minute glandular hairs, more abundant especially on young parts, and occasionally also relatively long glandular hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too
Morphology Branches
Branches subterete or angular, drying ± sulcate, with mostly short and minute, ± appressed and spreading hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, sometimes tinged violet; petiole (0.2)1–4.5(5.5) cm long, slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous, (1)2–6.5 × (0.5)1–3.5 cm, ovate to lanceolate, occasionally elliptic or rhombic, base obtuse, cuneate or attenuate, and often oblique to dimidiate, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or ± acuminate, repand to coarsely sinuate-dentate or rather dentate, the teeth often unequal, ± triangular, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, occasionally entire, sparsely ciliate but otherwise ± glabrous (or elsewhere sparsely pubescent)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel violaceous, 2–5 mm long, hairy and glandular, in fruit elongated to 6(8) mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (4)5–7(8) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, broadly campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, sparsely pubescent with multicellular, spreading, sometimes glandular hairs, mostly on the angles, or subglabrous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense minute indumentum sometimes only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal, 1. 5–3.5 × 2–4 mm, ± triangular or ovate, obtuse or ± acute, sometimes sub-acuminate; in fruit green or yellowish-green, often with purple venation, 25–35 × 20–30 mm, ovoid, ± terete or slightly 5(or 10)-angled and somewhat 10-ribbed, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, often nearly or well-filled by the fruit, the lobes 4–7 × 2.5–5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, blotched with 5 dark violaceous or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, continued by veins along the lobes, 10–15 mm long, ± rotate or broadly campanulate; tube subglabrous, furnished with ± sessile glands, on the inside with dense felted indumentum especially near the insertion of the stamens, continued by shorter and less dense hairs to near the mouth; limb 10–20 mm across, 5-lobed to subentire, erect to widely spreading, sometimes reflexed when fully expanded, on the outside with sparse, short hairs and ± sessile glands, ± glabrous inside, ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually exserted, unequal; filaments violaceous, 3.5–5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, sometimes furnished with a few hairs; anthers purplish, violaceous to blue, or yellowish with bluish border, 2.5–4 mm long, ovate-oblong to elliptic in outline, usually curved or ± twisted after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 0.1 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 5–1. 8 × 1. 4–1. 7 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 7–8 mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit green to dark violet or purple, sometimes yellow or yellowish, sessile on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, c.  15 mm (elsewhere said to reach 60 mm) diameter, ± globose, oily or viscid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish, 2.2–2.6 × 1. 8–2.1 mm, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Japanese Gooseberry” or “Tomatillo”. Cultivated mainly for its edible fruits and occurring as an escape or as a weed of cultivation; sometimes locally naturalized in Europe and Africa.
Distribution
ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM E, ZIM C Native to North America (United States and Mexico), now extending northwards to Canada and southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to South America (Galapagos). Zambia Zimbabwe
[FZ]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/109716592/109716595

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated “Jardin du Roi “, France, originally from North America, 1784 (P-LAM, holo.; fiche LM 471/5!)
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb < 0.5 m high.
Morphology Stem
Stems brownish-green or purple-tinged, sometimes woody and/or angular, sparsely to moderately pilose with simple hairs, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves membranaceous, green to greyish-green, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate to deltate, 2.8–5.6(–10) × 1.2–3.2(–5.2) cm, bases cuneate, often oblique, sometimes decurrent, margins sinuate-dentate with 2–9 acute antrorse lobes, rarely sinuate, apices acute, pilose (sometimes denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces) to glabrous, stipulate; petioles (0.6–)1.5–4.5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels erect in flower and recurved in fruit, 3–8 mm long, sparsely pilose, 8–11 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cupulate/campanulate, 3–4(?–7) mm long with five broadly triangular acute lobes 1.5–3 × 1.6–2.4(–4) mm with ciliate margins, sparsely pilose to glabrous externally, enlarged and persistent in fruit with connivent lobes 4–5 × 5–6 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow to orange-yellow with pale or sepia basal spots or blotches and an internal ring of dense long eglandular hairs exposed by recurvature of throat, broadly campanulate, 0.8–1.5 cm long and 1.2–1.8 cm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin undulating, ciliate and entire or with 5 short broadly triangular obtuse lobes ± 3 × 4 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens often unequal, exserted; filaments free for 3–5 mm; anthers purple and yellow, twisted and/or curved at maturity, oblong, bilobed, 2.8–4.4 × 0.9–1 mm, always exserted, maturing at different times and of different lengths within the same flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary pale green to brownish, ovoid, 1–2 × 1–2 mm, smooth, glabrous; style exserted up to 2.5 mm, 5.5–9 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit maturing to ?purple, globose, 0.9–1.1(–1.4) cm diameter, smooth, sessile on invaginated pedicel base, enclosed by enlarged and inflated reticulatelyveined globose calyx which 2.2–2.5 cm diameter, the mouth closed by connivent lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 9–11(–16) per berry, yellow to orange, orbicular, 2.1–2.5 × 1.7–2.2 mm, compressed
Figures
Fig 15/5–11, p 72
Ecology
Weed of gardens, fields and cultivation, especially of crops; occasional to common; 1700–2000 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
This species is commonly known as the tomate, miltomate or husk tomato; it has been in cultivation since pre-Colombian times and is still widely cultivated as a fruit, though it is rarely eaten raw. Wild and domesticated varieties have been recognised (viz. var. philadelphica and var. domestica – cf. Hudson, 1986) with morphological intermediates being common and the species exhibiting the wide variability characteristic of domesticated plants. The diagnostic features given by Agnew (1994) for P. ixocarpa suggest that the plants described belong to P. philadelphica.
Distribution
Flora districts: K3 K4 Range: Native to North America, sporadic weed in Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa
[FTEA]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images