Genus:
Solanum L.

Solanum aethiopicum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is a cultigen from NE. Tropical Africa.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Ethiopia, J. Burser vol. 9 no. 17 (UPS, lecto. designated by Hepper & Jaeger in K.B. 40: 391, 1985)
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb or shrub, 0.3–1 m, erect, unarmed;
Morphology Stem
young stems glabrous to ± stellate-pubescent with trichomes porrect, translucent or orangetranslucent, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks up to 0.1 mm, rays ± 8(–12), 0.15–0.3 mm, midpoints shorter than rays
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blades drying concolorous to discolorous, yellowgreen to dark red-brown or almost black, 2–3 times longer than wide, ovate (elliptic), 5–18 × 2.5–10 cm, base cuneate to rounded, often unequal or oblique, margin subentire to weakly lobed, the lobes up to 3 on each side, up to 1.5 cm long, broadly rounded (acute) and extending up to 1/4 of the distance to the midvein, apex acute; glabrous to stellate-pubescent; trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays ± 8(–12), 0.2–0.35 mm, midpoints shorter than rays, adaxially with thick stalks and reduced rays and midpoints, often with minute simple hairs; primary veins 3–6 pairs; petiole 1–4 cm, 1/4–1/3 of the leaf length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences not branched, with 1–2(10) flowers, 1–1.8 cm long; peduncle 0–0.5 mm long; rachis 0–1 cm long; pedicels 0.5–2 cm long in flower, in fruit 0.7–2.5 cm long. Flowers perfect, 5–10-merous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3.5–9 mm long, lobes broadly deltate, 1.5–5 mm long, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, 0.8–1.8 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 2/3 of its length, lobes deltate, 2.5–8 × 1.5–4.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal; anthers 2.3–4(–6) mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous or stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/5; style 4.5–9 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 1–4 per infructescence, evenly green or striped when young, orange at maturity, spherical or variously shaped, (10–)15–25(–50) mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.1–3.5 × 2–2.5 mm
Ecology
Cultivated in woodland and wooded grassland zones; does not naturalise
Note
Solanum aethiopicum is a widespread cultivated vegetable crop, and includes all cultivated forms of S. anguivi. Solanum aethiopicum can be identified and distinguished from S. anguivi by a combination of the following characters: annual herbaceous habit, frequent lack of stellate indumentum, smaller and more entire leaves, 1–2(–10) flowers per inflorescence, short and thick pedicels of fruit crop varieties, more than 5 perianth lobes, ovary enlarged even at anthesis, fruit over 1 cm in diameter and with more than two locules, not detaching easily from the pedicels, immature fruit striped and/or not green when immature, and seeds over 2.5 mm long. Leaf vegetable varieties are easily recognizable by their thin membranous leaves and dark red-brown, almost black drying colour; these have up to 10 small flowers. Precise limits of this species are difficult to specify due to the wide variety of infrequently occurring characters. Prickly forms of S. aethiopicum have been recorded from European botanical gardens (Lester & Niakan, In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics, pp. 433–456. 1986), but are not known in Africa. Solanum aethiopicum, S. gilo, S. olivare, and S. integrifolium are all interfertile cultivated races of S. anguivi. The cultivars have been separated into four groups: Gilo group (with stellate hairs and large fleshy variably shaped fruits that taste like carrots or green beans, common in Brazil), Shum group (leaf vegetable with no stellate hairs or prickles, small fruits ± 2 cm in diameter, common in Africa), Kumba group (edible leaves that are almost glabrous as well as sweet broad deeply-grooved fruits), and Aculeatum Group (with prickles, broad and deeply furrowed fruit, common in European botanical gardens but not known in Africa). Solanum anguivi was maintained as a distinct wild to semicultivated species due to its largely distinct morphology, lack of wild intermediates, and a probable selective pressure against new hybrids between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi. Synonyms listed here are only those in common use or based on African types. Complete synonymy for S. aethiopicum can be found on the Solanaceae Source website (http://www.solanaceaesource.org).
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Madagascar, and throughout South America and in some parts of Europe and Asia Range: Widely distributed in cultivation: Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi,

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A glabrous herb up to 2 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
White or pale violet flowers up to 2/3 in. diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Globose, red shining fruits up to 3/4 in. diam.

Native to:

Eritrea, Ethiopia

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Benin, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Illinois, Ivory Coast, Kentucky, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

Solanum aethiopicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [63], Cameroon K000109670 No
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [35], Cameroon K000109671 No
Jan 1, 1997 s.coll [s.n.] K001159961 Yes
Mar 30, 1995 Lester, R.N. [046], Nigeria K000489376 Yes
Mar 30, 1995 Thomas, N.W. [146], Nigeria K000489377 Yes
Mar 30, 1995 Morton, J.K. [4193], Ghana K000212471 Yes
Mar 30, 1995 Hall [47129], Ghana K000489375 Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Pervillé, M. [510], Madagascar K000212238 lectotype Yes
Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [5001], Madagascar K000212237 No
Jun 28, 1905 Ramos, M. [15341], Philippines K000195941 Yes
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K000414098 Unknown type material Yes
s.coll [8727] K001168000 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001168004 Yes
Yates, C.C. [20A], Nigeria K001155619 Yes
Yates, C.C. [13A], Nigeria K001155622 Yes
Hall [GC47110] K001155624 Yes
Elliot, G.F.S. [4955] K001155630 Yes
Michael Fay, J. [5426], Central African Republic K001155813 Yes
Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155814 Yes
Myers, J.G. [6587], Sudan K001156013 Yes
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001156015 Yes
Purseglove, J.W. [3562], Uganda K001156741 Yes
Greenway [6061], Tanzania K001156746 Yes
Buchanan, J. [6226], Malawi K001158357 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001168002 Yes
Michael Fay, J. [5421], Central African Republic K001155816 Yes
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001155821 Yes
Trapnell, C.G. [1455], Zambia K001158351 Yes
Tallantire, A.C. [t671], Uganda K001156738 Yes
s.coll [8] K001155808 Yes
Baldwin, J.T. [6694], Liberia K001155628 Yes
Purseglove, J.W. [P1203], Uganda K001156751 Yes
Westphal, E. [9141], Cameroon K001168010 Yes
Jenman [6483], Guyana K001168003 Yes
Hall [GC47126] K001155617 Yes
Buchanan, J. [1186], Malawi K001158358 Yes
Raynal, J. [20363], Rwanda K001155828 Yes
Trapnell, C.G. [1456], Zambia K001158354 Yes
Trapnell, C.G. [1454/1], Zambia K001158359 Yes
Fanshawe, D.B. [F10143], Zambia K001158350 Yes
Seemann [167] K001162547 Yes
s.coll [316], Nigeria K001155620 Yes
Michael Fay, J. [5420], Central African Republic K001155815 Yes
Welw. [6077b], Angola K001029789 paratype Yes
s.coll [FHI67578], Nigeria K001168012 Yes
Chevalier, A.J.B. [22124], Côte d'Ivoire K001155627 Yes
Tessmann, G. [2518], Cameroon K001155809 Yes
Hall [GC47115] K001155623 Yes
Baum, H. [725], Angola K001029793 Yes
Gbile, Z.O. [FHI67578], Nigeria K001168013 Yes
Morton, J.K. [SL2838] K001155629 Yes
s.coll [450] K001156745 Yes
Purseglove, J.W. [P1201], Uganda K001156743 Yes
Hall [GC47119] K001155625 Yes
Buchanan [155], Uganda K001158356 paratype Yes
s.coll [D32], Uganda K001156750 Yes
Trapnell, C.G. [1459], Zambia K001158352 Yes
Nee, M. [16076], USA K001168006 Yes
Sigara [102], Tanzania K001156748 Yes
Irvine, F.B. [3604], Nigeria K001168014 Yes
Welwitsch [6093], Angola K001029791 Yes
Welwitsch [6091], Angola K001029792 Yes
Westphal, E. [9811], Cameroon K001168011 Yes
Phiri, R. [128], Zambia K001158353 Yes
Purseglove, J.W. [P1202], Uganda K001156744 Yes
Casas, F. [11991], Equatorial Guinea K001155819 Yes
s.coll [P3563], Uganda K001156740 Yes
Gossweiler, J. [7966] K001155824 Yes
Linder, D.H. [1850], Congo K001155820 Yes
Bates, G.L. [s.n.], Cameroon K001155810 Yes
Thomas, N.W. [1237], Nigeria K001155626 Yes
Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155817 Yes
Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155827 Yes
Tessmann, G. [525], Equatorial Guinea K001155811 Yes
s.coll [117], Cameroon K001168008 Yes
Schweinfurth, G. [3429] K001156014 Yes
Tessmann, G. [78], Guinea K001155618 Yes
Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155826 Yes
Purseglove, J.W. [P3562], Uganda K001156739 Yes
Russell, P.G. [52220], Uganda K001156742 Yes
Mbailwa [82], Tanzania K001156747 Yes
Trapnell, C.G. [1754], Zambia K001158355 Yes
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001029790 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001167999 Yes
s.coll [D42], Uganda K001156752 Yes
Frank, H. [H184/55], Tanzania K001156749 Yes
Chevalier, A.J.B. [s.n.], Sudan K001155631 Yes
Tessmann, G. [524], Equatorial Guinea K001155812 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168007 Yes
Gouan [s.n.] K001156016 Yes
Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155818 Yes
Chevalier, A. [8517], Central African Republic K001155823 Yes
Yates, C.C. [43], Nigeria K001155621 Yes
Dümmer, R. [2477], Uganda K001156753 Yes
Louis, J. [11117], Congo K001155806 Yes
Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155825 Yes
Bates, G.L. [279] K001155822 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168005 Yes
s.coll [8727] K001168001 Yes
s.coll [8], Nigeria K001168009 Yes
Nov 1, 1958 Garrette, G.H. [22], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212465 Yes
Nov 1, 1958 Thomas, N.W. [4357], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212463 Yes
Nov 1, 1958 Thomas, N.W. [456], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212464 Yes
Nov 1, 1958 s.coll. [52], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212466 Yes
Nov 1, 1958 Fisher, J.D. [91], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212462 Yes
Tallantine, A. [671], Uganda Solanum gilo 27157.000 No
Makina, B. [11907], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168897 Yes
Myers, J.G. [10219], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168898 Yes
Mann G. [1872], Equatorial Guinea Solanum gilo K000414037 Yes
Makina, B. [11886], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168899 Yes
Katende, A.B. [66], Uganda Solanum gilo K001168900 Yes
Rio de Janeiro Solanum worsleyi K000590092 Yes
Burchell [8517], Brazil Solanum worsleyi K001058887 Yes
Rio de Janeiro Solanum worsleyi K000590093 Yes
Solanum integrifolium 27797.000 No
s.coll [4], United Kingdom Solanum integrifolium K001169052 Yes
Symon, D.E. [31470] Solanum integrifolium K001169053 Yes

First published in Cent. Pl. II: 10 (1756)

Accepted by

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 55: 1-137. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Amoen. Acad. 4: 307 (1759)
  • Bitter in Fedde Rep. 16: 44 (1923).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 217, partly
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 1, 2: 208, partly (Thomas 146) and excl. syn.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cent. Pl. 2: 10 (1756)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 217 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963).

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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