Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl.

First published in Linnaea 19: 304 (1846)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Mexico to Central America. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/136783671/136783673

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Shrub or small tree up to 7.5 m, armed, but flowering branches sometimes unarmed; hairs stellate, ± long stalked to sessile, ± irregular, sometimes with a rather shorter or longer central ray, sometimes bristle-like; prickles reddish-brown to dark purple, 2–8(9) mm long and 1–8 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed and wide towards the base, stout, straight or recurved, subulate upwards, striate, often basally pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes lateral, extra-axillary or axillary, at first appearing terminal, unbranched, once-forked or more-branched, racemiform, sometimes scorpioid or corymbiform, 4–10 cm long, 4–9 cm across, congested, many-flowered, tomentose or hispid with rusty-red hairs, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile; peduncle 0.6–3 cm long, stout Cymes lateral, extra-axillary or axillary, at first appearing terminal, unbranched, once-forked or more-branched, racemiform, sometimes scorpioid or corymbiform, 4–10 cm long, 4–9 cm across, congested, many-flowered, tomentose or hispid with rusty-red hairs, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile; peduncle 0.6–3 cm long, stout.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5(6)-merous. Flowers 5(6)-merous; pedicels 0.8–1.2 cm long, stout, tomentose or hispid, sometimes glandular, and also with a few simple hairs intermixed, in fruit elongated to 1.5 cm, erect and stouter, with marked corky thickenings towards the point of attachment.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 0.8–1. 2 cm long, stout, tomentose or hispid, sometimes glandular, and also with a few simple hairs intermixed, in fruit elongated to 1. 5 cm, erect and stouter, with marked corky thickenings towards the point of attachment
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–12 mm long, 7–10 mm across, very accrescent to 12 mm in diameter, cyathiform; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 1. 5–2 mm, linear or lanceolate, acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 12 × 4 mm, at first curved out at the apex, later reflexed, the sinuses tomentose to subglabrous Calyx 6–12 mm long, 7–10 mm across, very accrescent to 12 mm in diameter, cyathiform; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 1.5–2 mm, linear or lanceolate, acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 12 × 4 mm, at first curved out at the apex, later reflexed, the sinuses tomentose to subglabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, occasionally bluish, stelliform; limb 1. 8–3 cm across; lobes 5–12 × 4–10 mm, lanceolate, acuminate or acute, pubescent outside, glabrous or with a few hairs along the midrib inside, spreading or sub-reflexed Corolla white, occasionally bluish, stelliform; limb 1.8–3 cm across; lobes 5–12 × 4–10 mm, lanceolate, acuminate or acute, pubescent outside, glabrous or with a few hairs along the midrib inside, spreading or sub-reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 1–2(3) mm long; anthers (6)7–8(9) mm long, slender, oblong-conical, not cohering Stamen filaments 1–2(3) mm long; anthers (6)7–8(9) mm long, slender, oblong-conical, not cohering.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c.  2 mm long, ovoid-ellipsoid, sulcate, sometimes tuberculate, sparsely glandular-pubescent or glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style (10)12–13 mm long, exceeding the stamens, sparsely glandular-pubescent at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits green, later yellowish to drab orange-yellow when ripe, drying brown, (10)13–20 mm in diameter, globose, hard, mucilaginous, glabrous Fruits green, later yellowish to drab orange-yellow when ripe, drying brown, (10)13–20 mm in diameter, globose, hard, mucilaginous, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± numerous, shining, yellow to light brown, 2–3 × 1. 5–2.5 mm, compressed, ± reniform, verruculose all over Seeds ± numerous, shining, yellow to light brown, 2–3 × 1.5–2.5 mm, compressed, ± reniform, verruculose all over.
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Giant Devil's Fig”. This species has long been known as S. hispidum, but according to Nee, in litt., that Andean species has a much larger, more open inflorescence. It is clearly an allied but distinct species. S. chrysotrichum C.H. Wright is a synonym of S. incanum.
Ecology
Woodland and riparian fringes, sometimes on termite mounds, roadsides and agricultural land, considered a serious weed; 1000–1525 m.
Distribution
ZAM C, ZAM E, MAL C Malawi Often cultivated as an ornamental, originally native to Mexico, Guatemala and Panama, now widespread in the tropics, said to have been introduced to Africa from India a long time ago to protect cattle kraals against lions, but nowadays a potentially noxio Zambia
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 7.5 m, armed, but flowering branches sometimes unarmed; hairs stellate, ± long stalked to sessile, ± irregular, sometimes with a rather shorter or longer central ray, sometimes bristle-like; prickles reddish-brown to dark purple, 2–8(9) mm long and 1–8 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed and wide towards the base, stout, straight or recurved, subulate upwards, striate, often basally pubescent.
Morphology Branches
Branches tomentose to hispid or hirsute with bright rusty to rusty-brown hairs bearing long stalks and often elongate central rays, somewhat glabrescent. Branches tomentose to hispid or hirsute with bright rusty to rusty-brown hairs bearing long stalks and often elongate central rays, somewhat glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or geminate, sometimes closely set at ends of branches; petiole 1–11 cm long; lamina rather leathery and rough to touch, 7–47(60) × 4–31(35) cm, broadly ovate to cordate, sometimes elliptic, base obtuse to cordate or truncate, often dimidiate, rarely equal-sided, apex acute to long-acuminate, entire to broadly, deeply and irregularly lobed, the lobes 7–13, rounded to ovate-lanceolate, apically rounded to acuminate, entire to lobulate, the sinuses rounded, hispid above with appressed, short, ± sessile hairs often bearing a long and apically recurved central ray, felty tomentose beneath with mostly brownish hairs, with 5–8 pairs of curved-ascending lateral nerves, sparingly prickly at least on the midrib or unarmed. Leaves solitary or geminate, sometimes closely set at ends of branches; petiole 1–11 cm long; lamina rather leathery and rough to touch, 7–47(60) × 4–31(35) cm, broadly ovate to cordate, sometimes elliptic, base obtuse to cordate or truncate, often dimidiate, rarely equal-sided, apex acute to long-acuminate, entire to broadly, deeply and irregularly lobed, the lobes 7–13, rounded to ovate-lanceolate, apically rounded to acuminate, entire to lobulate, the sinuses rounded, hispid above with appressed, short, ± sessile hairs often bearing a long and apically recurved central ray, felty tomentose beneath with mostly brownish hairs, with 5–8 pairs of curved-ascending lateral nerves, sparingly prickly at least on the midrib or unarmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 2 mm long, ovoid-ellipsoid, sulcate, sometimes tuberculate, sparsely glandular-pubescent or glabrous; style (10)12–13 mm long, exceeding the stamens, sparsely glandular-pubescent at the base.
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=24.
[FZ]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
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    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images