Solanum hastifolium Hochst. ex Dunal

First published in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 284 (1852)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is NE. & E. Tropical Africa.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/101526603/101526615

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub, erect or often scandent, up to 2 m high; branches armed with small yellowish brown recurved prickles, with very sparse indumentum or glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, nearly of same size on a branch, not clustered; petiole 0.2–2.5 cm long; blade lanceolate to ovate, 1–5(–7) x 0.7–3 cm, with scattered stellate hairs on both sides, base shortly and broadly cuneate, often hastate, margin entire or more often sinuate or lobed, basal part of leaf often widest, apex acute to rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 2–4-flowered, pedicel of basal flower arising close to the stem, other flowers born at end of c. 1 cm long rachis and umbel-like, or sometimes the rachis slightly prolonged; peduncle obsolete; pedicels 0.6–2.2 cm long, elongating to c. 1.6 cm in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, c. 5 mm long, with narrowly triangular to almost linear lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla violet, c. 1.5 cm in diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 7–8 mm long, subsessile or sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style exceeding the anthers with c. 2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, c. 0.8 cm in diam.
Distribution
N1; S2, 3; Ethiopia, Kenya
Ecology
Altitude range 35–1150 m.
[FSOM]

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change Project, 2013. Ethiopia Crop Wild Relatives Seed Collecting Guide. Compiled by Laura Jennings, RBG Kew

Conservation
least concerned. least concerned least concerned
Ecology
dry acacia scrub, open places, disturbed vegetation and roadsides on sand, clay, loam and black. altitude:0-1500m cotton soil dry acacia scrub, open places, disturbed vegetation and roadsides on sand, clay, loam and black cotton soil. altitude 0-1500m dry acacia scrub, open places, disturbed vegetation and roadsides on sand, clay, loam and black cotton soil. altitude0 - 1500 m
Distribution
widespread, dry, mainly inland east african species found from sudan, ethiopia and somalia to uganda and northern tanzania. widespread, dry, mainly inland east african species found from sudan, ethiopia and somalia to uganda and northern tanzania. widespread, dry, mainly inland east african species found from sudan, ethiopia and somalia to uganda and northern tanzania.
Phenology
flower (april - december), fruit (april - december) flower (april - december), fruit (april - december) flower (april-december), fruit (april-december).
Habit
woody herb or small shrub, usually erect, sometimes ascending or climbing, 0.3-1(1.5) m, armed, sparsely branched; bark smooth, grey to brown; leaves evenly distributed along the stems woody herb or small shrub, usually erect, sometimes ascending or climbing, 0.3-1(1.5) m, armed, sparsely branched; bark smooth, grey to brown; evenly distributed along the stems woody herb or small shrub, usually erect, sometimes ascending or climbing, 0.3-1(1.5) m, armed, sparsely branched; bark smooth, grey to brown; leaves evenly distributed along the stems
[SCG]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Sudan, Mt Cordofan, Arasch-Cool, Kotschy 393 (P00344017! lecto, designated here [see note]; B, BM!, GOET!, K!, M, P!, W, WRSL, isolecto.)
Morphology General
Erect or sometimes scandent woody subshrub, 0.3–1(–1.5) m, young stems sparsely to densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect, translucent, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks up to 0.1 mm, rays 5–8, 0.1–0.3 mm, midpoints same length as rays or shorter; prickles hooked to almost straight, reflexed or curved downwards, 1–4 mm long, 0.5–3.5 mm wide at base
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blades drying concolorous, yellow-green, ovate to lanceolate, 2.5–6.5 × 0.8–2.5 cm, 2–4 times longer than wide, base obtuse to cuneate(truncate), usually equal, margin lobed, the broadly rounded lobes 2–4 on each side, 0–10 mm long, extending up to 2/3 of the distance to the midvein, apex acute to obtuse; moderately to sparsely stellate-pubescent, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays 4–8, 0.1–0.4 mm, midpoints reduced or same length as rays, adaxially with fewer shorter rays; primary veins 3–4(–5) pairs; petiole 0.6–1.2 cm (–20 cm on basal leaves) 1/3–1/4 of the leaf length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences not branched, 1–3 cm long, with 3–5 flowers; peduncle absent; rachis 0.2–1.5 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed; pedicels 0.6–1.5 cm long in flower, in fruit 1.1–1.9 cm long, unarmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers perfect, 4-merous or 5-merous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–6 mm long, the lobes deltate, 2–4.5 mm long, acute to acuminate, unarmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla mauve to purple (white), 1.4–2 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 4/5 of its length, the lobes lanceolate to oblong, 6–10 × 1.8–2.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal; anthers 5–8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous or with trichomes towards the apex; style 10–13 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 1–4 per infructescence, striped when young, red at maturity, spherical, 6–8 mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.8–3.3 × 2–2.8 mm
Ecology
Dry Acacia scrub, open places, disturbed vegetation and roadsides on sand, clay, loam and black cotton soil; 200–1700 m
Note
Solanum hastifolium is a widespread polymorphic weedy species recognised by its lobed leaves, retrorse or recurved prickles, and inflorescences with more than 2 flowers. Solanum hastifolium is closely affiliated with the more local S. taitense and S. setaceum.  The protologue of Solanum hastifolium cites a specimen in „h. Delile“: this may be the sheet P00344017 now held in Paris and annotated with the Prodromus species number; no duplicates of Kotschy 393 were found at MPU and the other specimen at P, P00344018, originates from Hb. Cosson . P00344017 is chosen as the lectotype to fix the application of this name . It is difficult to distinguish Solanum taitense from S. hastifolium reliably as no single character separates all the specimens, but S. hastifolium has the majority of the following: lobed leaves 2.6–6.5 cm long (versus entire to subentire leaves 1.2–3(–3.5) cm long in S. taitense), abundant prickles 1–4 mm long, spaced 3–10 mm apart (versus inconspicuous prickles up to 1(–2) mm long in S. taitense), 3–5 flowers per inflorescence (versus 1–2(–3) flowers per inflorescence in S. taitense), plant sparsely to moderately pubescent (versus S. taitense densely pubescent), and trichomes sessile to shortly stalked (versus stalked trichomes on all vegetative surfaces with inflated trichome stalks on the adaxial side of the leaves in S. taitense). Solanum setaceum can be distinguished by its prominent stem bristles.
Distribution
Range: South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia Flora districts: U1 K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3
[FTEA]

Sources

  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Seed Collection Guides

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0