Solanum incanum L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Iran to India. It is a subshrub or shrub and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Distribution

Native to:

Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Taiwan, Vietnam

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

Kew Bulletin

  • Bitter, G. (1913). Solana Africana Part I. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 560 – 569.
  • Bitter, G. (1917). Solana Africana Part II. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 416 – 507.
  • Bitter, G. (1921). Solana Africana Part III. Bot. Jahrb.Syst. 57: 248 – 286.
  • Bitter, G. (1923). Solana Africana Part IV. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 16: 1 – 320.
  • Dammer, U. (1905). Solanaceae Africanae. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 38: 57 – 60.
  • Dammer, U. (1906). Solanaceae Africanae I. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 38: 176 – 195.
  • Dammer, U. (1912). Solanaceae Africanae II. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 48: 236 – 260.
  • Dammer, U. (1915). Solanaceae Africanae III. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 53: 325 – 352.
  • Daunay, M.-C., Dalmon, A. & Lester R. N. (1999). Management of a Collection of Solanum Species for Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Breeding Purposes. In: M. Nee, D. E. Symon, R. N. Lester & J. P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV: Advances in Biology and Utilization, pp. 369 – 383. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Daunay, M.-C., Lester, R. N. & Laterrot, H. (1991). The use of wild species for the genetic improvement of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.). In: J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee & N. Estrada (eds), Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution, pp. 389 – 412. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,
  • Daunay, M.-C., Lester, R. N., Dalmon, A., Ferri, M., Kapilima, W., Poveda-Aguilar, M. M. & Jullian, E. (1998). The use of wild genetic resources for eggplant (Solanum melongena) breeding. II: crossability and fertility of interspecific hybrids. In: A. Palloix & M.-C. Daunay (eds), Proceedings of the XthEucarpia Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant, 7 – 11 Sept 1998, Avignon, France, pp.19 – 24. INRA, Paris.
  • Daunay, M.-C., Lester, R. N., Gebhardt, C., Hennart, J. W., Jahn, M., Frary, A. & Doganlar, S. (2001). Genetic resources of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and allied species: a new challenge for molecular geneticists and eggplant breeders. In: R. G. van den Berg, G. W. M. Barendse, G. M. van der Weerden & C. Mariani (eds), Solanaceae V: Advances in Taxonomy and Utilization, pp. 251 – 274. Nijmegen University Press, Nijmegen.
  • Gianoli, E. & Hannunen, S. (2001). Plasticity of leaf traits and insect herbivory in Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) in Nguruman, S.W. Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 38: 183 – 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Hasan, S. M. Z. (1989). Biosystematic Study of Solanum melongena L. in Asia and Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Birmingham.
  • Jaeger, P.-M. L. & Hepper, F. N. (1986). A review of the genus Solanum in Africa. In: W. G. D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics, pp. 41 – 55. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Jaeger, P.-M. L. (1985). Systematic Studies in the Genus Solanum in Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Birmingham.
  • Jayawickrama, H. D. (1990). Study of the Diversity of Solanum incanumagg. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis, University of Birmingham.
  • Lester, R. N. & Daunay, M.-C. (2003). Diversity of African vegetable Solanum species and its implications for a better understanding of plant domestication. In: H. Knuppfler & J. Ochsmann (eds), Rudolf Mansfield and Plant Genetic Resources; SchriftenzuGenetischenRessourcen (DEU) Symposium Dedicated to the 100 th Birthday of Rudolf Mansfield. Gatersleben (DEU) 22: 137 – 152.
  • Lester, R. N. & Hasan, S. M. Z. (1991). Origin and domestication of the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena from S. incanum in Africa and Asia. In: J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee & N. Estrada (eds), Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution, pp. 369 – 387. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lester, R. N. & Kang, J. (1998). Embryo and endosperm function and failure in Solanum species and hybrids. Ann. Bot. 82 (4): 445 – 453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Lester, R. N. & Niakan, L. (1986). Origin and domestication of the scarlet eggplant, Solanum aethiopicum, from S. anguivi in Africa. In: W. G. D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics, pp. 433 – 456. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Lester, R. N. (1998). Genetic resources of capsicums and eggplants. In: A. Palloix & M.-C. Daunay (eds), Proceedings of the XthEucarpia Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant, 7 – 11 Sept. 1998, Avignon, France, pp. 25 – 30. INRA, Paris.
  • Lester, R. N. , Hawkes, J. G., Daunay, M.-C., van der Weerden, G. M. & Barendse, G. W. M. (2001). The sources, successes and successors of the Birmingham University Solanaceae Collection (1964-2000). In: R. G. van den Berg, G. W. M. Barendse, G. M. van der Weerden & C. Mariani (eds), Solanaceae V: Advances in Taxonomy and Utilization, pp. 391 – 412. Botanical Garden of Nijmegen, Nijmegen University Press.
  • Levin, R. A., Myers, N. R. & Bohs, L. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships among the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 93 (1): 157 – 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Mace, E. S., Lester, R. N. & Gebhardt, C. G. (1999). AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among the cultivated eggplant, Solanum melongena L., and wild relatives (Solanaceae). Theor. Appl. Genet. 99: 626 – 633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Mohammad, A., Baksh, S. & Iqbal, M. (1994). Cytogenetic studies on on the F1 hybrid Solanum incanum X S. melongena var. American Wonder. Cytologia 59 (4): 433 – 436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Olet, E. A. & Bukenya-Ziraba, R. (2001). Variation within the Solanum incanum complex in Uganda and its relationship with Solanum cerasiferum. In: R. G. van den Berg, G. W. M. Barendse, G. M. van der Weerden & C. Mariani (eds), Solanaceae V: Advances in Taxonomy and Utilization, pp. 97 –108. Botanical Garden of Nijmegen, Nijmegen University Press.
  • Onus, A. N. & Pickersgill, B. (2004). Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): occurrence and taxonomic distribution. Ann. Bot. 94 (2): 289 – 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Pearce, K. G. (1975). Solanum melongena L. and Related Species. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Birmingham.
  • Robinson, R. W. (1993). Variability of Solanum incanum in Kenya. Solanaceae Newslett. 3 (3): 4 – 7.
  • Sakata, Y. & Lester, R. N. (1994). Chloroplast DNA diversity in Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its related species S. incanum and S. marginatum. Euphytica 80: 1 – 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Sakata, Y. , Nishio, T. & Mathews, P. J. (1991). Chloroplast DNA analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and related species for their taxonomic affinity. Euphytica 55: 21 – 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Samuels, B. J. (1994). Solanum incanumsensulato (Solanaceae): A Taxonomic Survey. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Birmingham.
  • Samuels, B. J. (1996). Solanum incanumsensulato (Solanaceae): Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Distribution. Ph.D Thesis, University of Birmingham.
  • Whalen, M. D. (1984). Conspectus of species groups in Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum. Gentes Herb. 12: 179 – 282.
  • Wishart, D. (1982). CLUSTAN User Manual. Edinburgh University Library Program Unit, Edinburgh.
  • de Candolle, A. P. (1852). Prodromussystematisnaturalisregnivegetabilis 13. SumptibusVictoris Masson, Parisis.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 368 (1852).
  • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244, t. 105 (1994).
  • Ann. Fac. Agr. Univ. Bari 29: 541 (1978).
  • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973).
  • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 581, cum tab. (1994).
  • Bothalia 18: 84 (1988).
  • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 586 (1949).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 868 (1963).
  • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1909: 125 (1909).
  • Charrier, Jacquot, Hamon & Nicolas (eds.), Tropical Plant Breeding, Oxford University Press: 200 (2001).
  • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 89 (1955).
  • Compton, Fl. Swaziland: 516, 517 (1976).
  • F. White, For. Fl. Northern Rhodesia: 376 (1962).
  • F.C. 4, 2: 101 (1904)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 238 (1906).
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 332 (1963).
  • Fanshawe, Check-list Woody Pl. Zambia Showing Distrib.: 40 (1973).
  • Fitoterapia 48, 3: 126 (1977).
  • Fl. Rwanda 3: 376, 380, fig. 120/1 (1985).
  • Gentes Herb. 12: 262 (1984).
  • Hutchinson, Botanist South. Africa: 675 (1946).
  • Jacot Guillarmod, Fl. Lesotho: 241 (1971).
  • Kew Bull. 40: 387 (1985).
  • Kirkia 10: 272 (1975).
  • Knüpffer & Ochsmann (eds.), Schriften Genet. Ressourcen 22: 137 (2003).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 10, 14 (1969).
  • Miller, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Bech. Prot.: 53 (1948).
  • Proc. & Trans. Rhodesia Sci. Assoc. 43: 42 (1951).
  • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 270 (1923).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
  • Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)
  • Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 935 (1759).
  • Taxon 38: 138 (1989).
  • Taxon 39: 521 (1990).
  • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 654, 657, fig. 227/1 (1982)
  • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Africa: 169 (1969).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 993, fig. 245 (1962).
  • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 125 (1953)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by J. Edmonds, I. Friis and M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 190, t. 591 (1992)
  • Cribb & Leedal, Mountain Fl. Tanzania: 111, t. 26a (1982)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 238 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 112 (2005)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 140, fig. 158.15.1–3 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 216 (2006).
  • K.T.S.L.: 581 (1994)
  • Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)
  • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 1, 2015 Wilford, C. [83], Hong Kong K001152605 Yes
Jul 1, 2015 s.coll [s.n.] K001152604 Yes
Jul 1, 2015 s.coll [s.n.] K001152584 Yes
May 1, 2015 Loher, A. [4373], Philippines K000195972 Yes
Aug 9, 2013 Dalziel, J.M. [92], Nigeria K000788645 Yes
Aug 9, 2013 Dalziel, J.M. [184], Nigeria K000788644 Yes
Aug 9, 2013 Hadid, N.E. [7025A], Egypt K000788646 Yes
Aug 9, 2013 Meikle, R.D. [816], Nigeria K000788642 Yes
Aug 9, 2013 Golding, J.D. [52], Chad K000788643 Yes
Jun 1, 2012 Loher, A. [4368], Philippines K000195969 Yes
Jun 1, 2012 Merrill, E.D. [345], Philippines K000195970 No
Jun 1, 2012 Elmer, A.D.E. [5528], Philippines K000195965 No
Jun 1, 2012 Elmer, A.D.E. [8214], Philippines K000195964 No
Jun 1, 2012 Borden, T.E. [1948], Philippines K000195963 Yes
Jun 1, 2012 Tsang, W.T. [30055], Vietnam K000788174 Yes
Jun 1, 2012 Ramos, M. [4955], Philippines K000195962 Yes
Jun 1, 2012 Merrill, E.D. [938], Philippines K000195968 Yes
Jun 1, 2012 Otanes, F. [17776], Philippines K000195967 Yes
Jan 1, 2012 Cuming, H. [443], Philippines K000195961 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Lort Phillips, E. [s.n.], Somalia K000441661 lectotype Yes
Apr 26, 2007 Balston [13b], Saudi Arabia K000196866 Yes
Jul 20, 1994 Schimper [1574], Ethiopia K000545579 isotype Yes
Jul 20, 1994 Kotschy [231], Ethiopia K000545580 Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Baum, H. [469], Angola K000414077 Unknown type material Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Swynnerton [387], Zimbabwe K000414078 Unknown type material Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Buchanan, J. [494bis], Malawi K000414080 lectotype Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Swynnerton [387], Zimbabwe K000414079 Unknown type material Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Stewart [s.n.], Mozambique K000414088 Unknown type material Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Buchanan, J. [494bis], Malawi K000414081 isolectotype Yes
Mar 1, 1990 Scott [s.n.], Malawi K000414082 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 1958 Rosevear, D. R. [50/37], Cameroon K000028644 Yes
Jul 5, 1905 Ralimanana, H. [RLI-871], Madagascar K000663020 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Mueller-Dombois, D. [6810210R], Sri Lanka K000788151 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Lau, S.K. [114], China K000788164 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Oldham, R. [339b], Taiwan K000788166 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Henry, A. [8068], China K000788168 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2693], India K000788178 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25863], India K000788179 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25864], India K000788180 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25862], India K000788181 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [15829], India K000788189 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Royle, H.? [s.n.] K000788191 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], India K000788196 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Morse, H.B. [282], China K000788200 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Forster [s.n.] K000788206 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 illegible [22438a], India K000788207 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4497], Sri Lanka K000788220 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Davidse, G. [7257], Sri Lanka K000788223 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4646], Sri Lanka K000788225 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 illegible [279], India K000788201 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gupta, ? [s.n.] K000788204 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Lei, C.I. [392], China K000788170 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Pinard, C. [s.n.], Egypt K000788285 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wight, ? [2020], India K000788214 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gaudichaud, M. [145], Vietnam K000788171 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wilfords, ? [83], Hong Kong K000788165 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Murty, U.R. [5631], India K000788284 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Pearson, A. [p43], Australia K000788202 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Lord, J.K. [s.n.] K000788341 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4719], Sri Lanka K000788198 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Robinson, C.B. [287], Indonesia K000788158 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [185], India K000788287 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Duthie, J.F. [s.n.], India K000788188 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4719], Sri Lanka K000788218 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wight, R. [1573Ab], India K000823761 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 McDonald, ? [4479], Indonesia K000788160 No
Jul 4, 1905 Godefroy-Lebeuf, M. [s.n.], Cambodia K000788173 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Jamieson [333], India K000788192 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 illegible [16] K000788203 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Rich, H.H. [496], India K000788194 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [16045], India K000788210 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Dalzell, N.A. [603], India K000788195 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [H.I.2628c] K000823759 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Krishnappa, D.G. [68], India K000788211 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25861], India K000788186 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Bulkley, E. [s.n.], India K000788209 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hooker, ? [s.n.], India K000788205 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25865], India K000788286 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Maesen, L.J.G. van der [3289], India K000788197 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [H.I.2628L.b.] K000788154 No
Jul 4, 1905 Playfair, G.M.H. [75], China K000788167 No
Jul 4, 1905 Fosberg, F.R. [52845], Sri Lanka K000788226 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [14441], India K000788184 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [212], Pakistan K000788342 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Henry, A. [795], Taiwan K000788161 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [2626] K000788162 No
Jul 4, 1905 Krishnappa, D.G. [20], India K000788212 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4642a], Sri Lanka K000788221 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [15259], India K000788185 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Deane, H. [s.n.], Pakistan K000788289 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Tenpakkam, ? [s.n.] K000788215 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Zollinger, H. [26482], Indonesia K000788156 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Chun, N.K. [43473], China K000788163 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wright, C. [349], Hong Kong K000823758 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Du Puy, D.J. [CI94], Australia K000788157 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [14441], India K000788182 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [21597], India K000788152 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Comanor, P.L. [781], Sri Lanka K000788222 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], India K000788177 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wight, ? [s.n.], India K000788217 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Horsfield, T. [114], Indonesia K000788159 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], India K000788199 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000788288 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [5548a] K000788290 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4704], Sri Lanka K000788219 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [s.n.], India K000788208 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4643], Sri Lanka K000788224 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Drummond, J.R. [25859], India K000788183 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Bihar ? [473] K000788190 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [054], China K000788169 Yes
Dalziel, J.M., Gambia 22114.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [10937], Tanzania 24454.000 No
Arnold, M.H.M. [J], South Africa 35772.012 No
Headley, P.M. [192], Ethiopia 6049.062 No
Kotschy [333], Ethiopia K000414001 Yes
Kotschy [333], Ethiopia K000414002 Yes
Schimper [1921], Ethiopia K000414003 Yes
Schimper [1082], Ethiopia K000414004 isolectotype Yes
Schimper [123], Ethiopia K000414006 isoparalectotype Yes
Bequaert, J. [3402], Congo, DRC K000414034 isotype Yes
Dalziel, J.M. [387], Nigeria K000414052 isotype Yes
Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414083 isotype Yes
Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414084 isotype Yes
Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414085 isotype Yes
Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414086 isotype Yes
Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000414087 isotype Yes
Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414113 isotype Yes
Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414114 Yes
Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414115 Yes
Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414117 Unknown type material Yes
Goetze, W. [384a], Tanzania K000414118 Yes
Scheffler, G. [466], Kenya K000414120 isotype Yes
Scheffler, G. [94], Kenya K000414121 syntype Yes
Kässner [580], Kenya K000414122 isotype Yes
Chevalier, A. [1291], Mali K000489372 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [17721], India K000788213 Yes
Shabetai, J.R. [264], Egypt K001151975 Yes
Murray, G.W. [3347], Egypt K001151977 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [4869], Egypt K001151983 Yes
Trott, A.C. [1285], Saudi Arabia K001151991 Yes
Collenette, S. [208], Saudi Arabia K001151992 Yes
Collenette, I.S. [1137], Saudi Arabia K001151994 Yes
Schimper, W.P. [951], Egypt K001152010 Yes
Tackholm, V. [2031a] K001152012 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [3058], Egypt K001152017 Yes
Boulos, L. [13828], Saudi Arabia K001152019 Yes
Zaroug, M.G. [RMD40], Oman K001152020 Yes
Grey-Wilson, C. [246], Iran K001152049 Yes
Samuelsson, G. [2877], Jordan K001152050 Yes
Davis, D.H. [3721] K001152052 Yes
Meyers, F.S. [B2010] K001152058 Yes
Parlatore [s.n.] K001153082 Yes
Beccari, O. [168], Ethiopia K001156282 Yes
Pfund [8], Sudan K001156289 Yes
Maffey [46B], Sudan K001156295 Yes
s.coll [3], Egypt K001156296 Yes
Kuchar, P. [16952], Somalia K001156307 Yes
Friis, I. [10597], Ethiopia K001156315 Yes
Schweinfurth, G.A. [325], Yemen K001156326 Yes
s.coll [5], Yemen K001156328 Yes
Andriamahay, M. [1947], Madagascar K001158933 Yes
s.coll [68] K001151999 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [5855], Yemen K001151995 Yes
Khattab, A. [6285] K001152009 Yes
Andriamahay, M. [1414], Madagascar K001158931 Yes
Gillett, J.B. [12729], Kenya K001157701 Yes
Stewart, R.R. [1071], India K000788187 Yes
s.coll [28] K001156288 Yes
Kirika, P. [NMK196], Kenya K001157695 Yes
Spellenberg, R. [7251], Yemen K001152001 Yes
Bornmüller, J.F.N. [1173] K001152057 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [5885], Yemen K001152000 Yes
Mavi, S. [471], Zimbabwe K001169025 Yes
Sherif, M.I. [2881], Sudan K001156276 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001152032 Yes
Aucher-Éloy, P.M.R. [5029] K001152036 Yes
Khalifa, E-S. [1106], Egypt K001151980 Yes
Friis, I. [10634], Ethiopia K001156317 Yes
Davis [56096], Iran K001152047 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [53008], Jordan K001152060 Yes
s.coll [213/6], United Kingdom K001169027 Yes
s.coll [12181], Egypt K001151976 Yes
Kirika, P. [NMK196], Kenya K001157696 Yes
El Hadidi, N. [s.n.], Egypt K001152018 Yes
Aitchison, J.E.T. [505], Afghanistan K001152042 Yes
Wickens, G.E. [1348], Sudan K001156291 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001152033 Yes
Prendergast, H.D.V. [464], Oman K001152007 Yes
Kuchar, P. [17155], Somalia K001156321 Yes
Strachey, R. [7], India K000788292 Yes
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [5318], Oman K001152044 Yes
Expédition Purdy [106], Egypt K001156290 Yes
Cooke, B.K. [134] K001151989 Yes
Schimper, G.H.W. [951], Egypt K001151981 Yes
Eig, A. [285] K001152056 Yes
Bent, J.T. [s.n.] K001156301 Yes
Bally [B14628A], Kenya K001157698 Yes
Jacquemont, M.M. [9109], India K000788193 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Egypt K001152016 Yes
Stower, W. [B7112], Eritrea K001156277 Yes
Letchworth [s.n.], Israel K001152051 Yes
Slageren, M. van [170], Yemen K001151998 Yes
Bally, P.R.O. [B11297], Somalia K001156308 Yes
Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Syria K001152037 Yes
Elmer, A.D.E. [5610], Philippines K000195966 Yes
Stolz, A. [1580], Tanzania K000414116 Yes
Hagerup, O. [222], Mali K000489371 Yes
s.coll. [181], Benin K000489374 Yes
Schweinfurth, G.A. [445], Ethiopia K001156278 Yes
Hagos, T.H. [149], Eritrea K001156286 Yes
Hemming, C.F. [Jess/86/127], Somalia K001156324 Yes
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [3724], Oman K001152043 Yes
Robi, E.A. [104], Zambia K001169024 Yes
Sieber, F.W. [220] K001152035 Yes
Bally [B14628A], Kenya K001157697 Yes
Gillett, J.B. [23608], Somalia K001156323 Yes
Prendergast, H.D.V. [464], Oman K001152006 Yes
Hagos, T.H. [148], Eritrea K001156314 Yes
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Syria K001152038 Yes
Collenette, S. [152], Saudi Arabia K001151986 Yes
Brown, A.J. [1181], Sudan K001156299 Yes
Berhaut, R.P. [3205], Senegal K000489369 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [2470], Egypt K001152015 Yes
Maconochie, J.R. [2922], Oman K001152021 Yes
Letourneux, A.-.H. [283], Egypt K001151982 Yes
s.coll [1181SGH], Sudan K001156298 Yes
Barter, C. [s.n.], Niger K001155751 Yes
Anonymous [s.n.] K000788291 Yes
Nader [327], Saudi Arabia K001151985 Yes
Slageren, M. van [247], Saudi Arabia K001151993 Yes
Maconochie, O.R. [2878], Oman K001152022 Yes
Squires, R.W. [282] K000788172 Yes
Khalifa, E-S. [1116], Egypt K001151979 Yes
Prendergast, H.D.V. [464], Oman K001152041 Yes
Sahni [625], Sudan K001156292 Yes
Wiest, G. [655], Egypt K001151978 Yes
Popov [4269], Saudi Arabia K001151987 Yes
s.coll [61], Sudan K001156293 Yes
Schimper [1082], Ethiopia K000414005 isolectotype Yes
Fox, H.E. [s.n.] K001152054 Yes
Latilo. M.G. [64753], Nigeria K001155750 Yes
Bally [B14628A], Kenya K001157699 Yes
Bornmüller, J.F.N. [483] K001152048 Yes
s.coll [79], Sudan K001156294 Yes
Friis, I. [8685], Ethiopia K001156302 Yes
Schweinfurth, G.A. [1343], Ethiopia K001156279 Yes
Naegelé, A. [s.n.], Djibouti K001156280 Yes
Schimper, W.P. [786], Saudi Arabia K001152023 Yes
Collenette, C.N. [50], Somalia K001156325 Yes
Luke, W.R.Q. [10771], Kenya K001157702 Yes
McDonald [4479], Indonesia K001153483 Yes
Bent, J.T. [52], Yemen K001156327 Yes
Davis, D.H. [5020] K001152053 Yes
s.coll [5/31] K001156287 Yes
s.coll [20], Somalia K001156320 Yes
Kotschy, C.G.T. [940a], Egypt K001151984 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001152055 Yes
Acres, B. [82], Yemen K001151997 Yes
Carter [1811], Sudan K001156297 Yes
Bavazzano, R. [10c], Somalia K001156275 Yes
Schimper, W.P. [786], Saudi Arabia K001151990 Yes
s.coll [838] K001169028 Yes
s.coll [279], India K000788216 Yes
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [4365], Yemen K001151996 Yes
Friis, I. [10597], Ethiopia K001156316 Yes
Andriamahay, M. [1757], Madagascar K001158932 Yes
Kotschy [231], Ethiopia K001156281 Yes
s.coll [213/6], United Kingdom K001169026 Yes
Morton, J.K. [2086], Ghana K000489373 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001152034 Yes
Pase, C. [3122], Niger K000489368 Yes
Robertson, S.A. [1410], Ethiopia K001156313 Yes
Richards, H.M. [13463], United Kingdom K001169023 Yes
Glover, P.E. [24], Somalia K001156306 Yes
Moreau, R.E. [5626] K001152014 Yes
s.coll [291], Egypt K001152008 Yes
VCR [s.n.], Jordan K001152059 Yes
Schweinfurth, G.A. [1388], Sudan K001156300 Yes
Tackholm, V. [51] K001152011 Yes
Holst, C. [2678], Tanzania K000414119 isotype Yes
Täckholm, G. [s.n.], Egypt K001152013 Yes
Herlocker [523], Kenya K001157700 Yes
Biggs, H.E.J. [13213], Iran K001152046 Yes
Warfa, A.M. [1067], Somalia K001156319 Yes
s.coll [7] K001151974 Yes
Delfers, M. [161], Saudi Arabia K001151988 Yes

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Bulletin

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images