Solanum melongena L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 186 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia. It is a shrub and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as a poison and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Mauritius, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Réunion, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Cambodia, Kazakhstan, Laccadive Is., Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Zaïre

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Accepted Infraspecifics

Classification

Kew's Tree of Life Explorer

Discover the flowering plant tree of life and the genomic data used to build it.

View the Tree of Life
PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Aubriot, X. & Knapp, S. (2022). A revision of the "spiny solanums" of Tropical Asia (Solanum, the Leptostemonum Clade, Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 198: 1-270.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hợp, V.V. (2017). Thực Vật Chí Việt Nam. Flora of Vietnam 17: 1-324. Nhà xuất bản khoa học và kỹ thuật, Hà Nội.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Daunay, M.-C. & Chadha, M.L., 2004. Solanum melongena L. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Domino, E. F., Hornbach, E., Demana, T. (1993) The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables. The New England Journal of Medicine, pp. 329:437
  • Knapp et al. (2013) Wild Relatives of the Eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group. Plos One. Vol 8:2
  • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
  • Wang, J. X., Gao, T. G., & Knapp, S. (2008). Ancient Chinese literature reveals pathways of eggplant domestication. Ann. of Bot., 102(6), 891-897.
  • Weese, T. L., & Bohs, L. (2010). Eggplant origins: out of Africa, into the Orient. Taxon, 59(1), 49-56.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Bitter in Fedde Rep. Beih. 16: 292 (1923)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 242
  • Sp. Pl. 186 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Aubriot, X. & Knapp, S. (2022). A revision of the "spiny solanums" of Tropical Asia (Solanum, the Leptostemonum Clade, Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 198: 1-270.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by J. Edmonds, I. Friis and M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 242 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 138, fig. 158.14 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 216 (2006).
  • Sp. Pl.: 186 (1753)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 446 (1949)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Garcia, H. (1992). Flora Medicinal de Colombia. Botánica Médica. Segunda Edición. Tercer Mundo Editores. Tomo III.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2015 Barclay, G.W. [s.n.] K000922143 No
Jan 1, 2012 Wight, R. [1573Aa] India K000788153 No
Jan 1, 2008 Warnecke [357] Togo K000212470 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Vogel [52] Sierra Leone K000212466 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Sharland [544] Nigeria K000212469 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Rowland, J.W. [s.n.] Nigeria K000212461 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Hall; Bukenya [47135] Ghana K000212468 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Hall; Bukenya [47136] Ghana K000212467 Yes
Jan 1, 2007 Kerr, A.F.G. [4020] Thailand K000014595 Yes
Jan 1, 2007 Zimmermann, R. [25] Thailand K000014596 Yes
Jan 1, 2007 Zimmermann, R. [17] Thailand K000014611 Yes
Jun 15, 2006 Conklin, H.C. [2563] Philippines K000224054 Yes
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [58] Cameroon K000109679 No
Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [4405] Madagascar K000212384 Yes
Apr 4, 1991 Lorence, D. [508] Mauritius K000212382 Yes
Apr 4, 1991 Aryes, P.B. [s.n.] Mauritius K000212388 Yes
Apr 4, 1991 Phillipson, P.B. [2805] Madagascar K000212383 Yes
Apr 4, 1991 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.] Madagascar K000212385 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gay, J. [s.n.] K000788251 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4548] Sri Lanka K000788232 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Rottler, J.P. [s.n.] India K000788262 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gamble, J.S. [16326] India K000788252 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Soibeh, D. [773] Malaysia K000788230 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Taylor, P.M. [P344] Indonesia K000788267 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4548] Sri Lanka K000788234 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Royle. [s.n.] India K000788276 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Robinson, C.B. [288] K000788272 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Ahmed, H. [9842] Iraq K000788250 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4770] Sri Lanka K000788235 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Kurz, W.S. [s.n.] India K000788255 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Forrest, G. [4483] China K000788241 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Telado, ? [1920] Indonesia K000788270 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000788228 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wight, A.E. [1573A] India K000788260 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4641] Sri Lanka K000788236 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] India K000788256 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Henry, A. [2792] China K000788248 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Taquet, T. [1155] Korea, South K000788243 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Thomson, T. [25] K000788263 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wallich, N. [H.I.2628L.a.] K000823760 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] India K000788280 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Juan, G.E. [343] India K000788254 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Taylor, P.M. [P112] Indonesia K000788268 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Sibil, J. [286] Malaysia K000788231 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Roy, G.P. [2747] India K000788275 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Zollinger, H. [3773] Indonesia K000788265 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Backer [17065] Indonesia K000788227 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Willmott, E.A. [s.n.] K000788246 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] India K000630483 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] India K000788278 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000788274 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Tsang, W.T. [703] China K000788242 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hooker, J.D. [24] India K000788155 No
Jul 4, 1905 Cuadra, A. [A1171] Indonesia K000788273 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Heyne, B. [s.n.] K000788261 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000788277 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Zollinger, H. [702] Indonesia K000788269 Type Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Telado, ? [1920] Indonesia K000788271 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4641] Sri Lanka K000788237 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] India K000788258 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4770] Sri Lanka K000788238 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4402] Sri Lanka K000788233 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Sahira [35825] Iraq K000788249 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Gay, J. [s.n.] K000788264 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.] Syria K000788244 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Nedi [639] K000788229 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Heels [255] K000788279 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4642b] Sri Lanka K000788240 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4642b] Sri Lanka K000788239 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Chiao, C.Y. [2972] China K000788247 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Lörzing, J.A. [13254] Indonesia K000788266 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Duthie, J.F. [22438] K000788253 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Wight, A.E. [1573A] India K000788257 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [s.n.] India K000788259 Yes
Jul 4, 1905 Maingay, A.C. [398] China K000788245 Yes
Jun 27, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [623] Philippines K000195855 Yes
Jun 11, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [2563] Philippines K000788281 No
Jun 11, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [2563] Philippines K000195852 Yes
Jun 11, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [2563] Philippines K000195854 Yes
Jun 11, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [2563] Philippines K000788282 No
Stoddart, D.R.; Poore, M.E.D. [1376] K001169620 Yes
Kirk [s.n.] K001169612 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [4916] K001169616 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [4349] K001169619 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2628] Malaysia K001116668 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll [339] Seychelles K001169621 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116665 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] India K001116674 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll [8506] New Caledonia K001155385 Yes
Smith, H.H. [1149] Colombia K001164672 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116676 Unknown Type Material Yes
Smith, H.H.; Smith, G.W. [45] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines K001161101 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [4019] Thailand K000788176 Yes
s.coll [616] Jamaica K001161100 Yes
Balfour, I.B. [s.n.] Madagascar K000212386 Yes
Heldreich, T.H.H., von [s.n.] Greece K001151567 Yes
Holst, C. [2829] K001157831 Yes
K:SPC-35938.000 No
Simpson, N.D. [5240] K001169618 Yes
Verdcourt [3050] Kenya K001169611 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116671 Unknown Type Material Yes
Simpson, N.D. [5150] K001169617 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116670 Unknown Type Material Yes
Richards, H.M. [9861] Malawi K001169614 Yes
K:SPC-29047.193 No
Stoddart, D.R.; Poore, M.E.D. [1244] Seychelles K001169613 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] India K001116673 Unknown Type Material Yes
Welwitsch [6089b] Angola K001029807 Yes
Sibil, J. [54] Malaysia K001164669 Yes
Lunt, W. [164] K001169609 Yes
Conklin, H.C. [I-935] Philippines K000195853 Yes
Baron, R. [4816] Madagascar K001158956 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116664 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116669 Unknown Type Material Yes
K:SPC-70000.363 No
Willis, J.C.; Gardiner, J.S. [s.n.] British Indian Ocean Territory K001169622 Yes
Baron, R. [4574] Madagascar K001158954 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116667 Unknown Type Material Yes
Verdcourt [3050] Kenya K001157832 Yes
Heldreich, T.H.H., von [s.n.] Greece K001151568 Yes
Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [435] Thailand K000014599 Yes
Fay, J.M.; Ngaindiro, S.; Jules, F.; Raymond, S.; et al [5422] Central African Republic K001155961 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116675 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116663 Unknown Type Material Yes
Andriamahaqy, M.; Cable, S. [518] Madagascar K001158955 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] India K001116672 Unknown Type Material Yes
Subil, J. [257] Malaysia K001164671 Yes
McKee, H.S. [RSNH 24079] Vanuatu K001155327 Yes
Sibil, J. [201] Malaysia K001164670 Yes
s.coll [158] India K001169615 Yes
Hu, S.Y. [9436] Hong Kong K001169610 Yes
Venezuela K:SPC-70000.560 No
Meikle, R.D. [816] Nigeria K:SPC-16658.000 No
s.coll. [s.n.] Mauritius K000212387 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [2201] Thailand K000788175 Yes
Morton, M. [12] Madagascar K000212390 Yes
Herb. Griffith [5913] Afghanistan K001152171 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2628] K001116666 Unknown Type Material Yes
India K:SPC-80120.000 No
Mitchell [1] Solanum ovigerum K001152176 Yes

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0