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This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. Kenya to Mozambique and W. Pacific.
Heritiera littoralis

[FTEA]

Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

Type
Types: Sri Lanka [Zeylon], Koenig s.n. (BM, syn.); Vietnam [Pulo Condore], Nelson s.n. (BM, syn.); and Rheede, Hort. Malab. 6: 37, t. 21 (1686) (syn.). One of the original syntypes, “Samandura. Linn. zeyl. 433”, is excluded since it represents Samadera indica Gaertn. (Simaroubaceae).
Morphology General Habit
Large, evergreen trees, (3–)10–25 m tall, to 1 m DBH; low-branched, crowns dense.
Morphology Bole
Base of bole with long and sinuous plank buttresses, to 30 cm tall.
Morphology General Bark
Bark pale grey, furrowed or reticulate, slash pink; young branchlets lepidote, but soon glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves elliptic to ovate or elliptic-oblong, 5–22(–30) cm long, 2.5–11(–24) cm wide, apex acute, subobtuse or obtuse, margin entire or undulate, base rounded to subcordate, often oblique; silvery-grey below, covered with a dense layer of minute, fimbriate, appressed scales, the centres of which are brown, occasionally completely brown scales scattered among the silvery scales, green and glabrous above; palmately 3(–5)-nerved from the base, midrib and 2° veins prominent below, other veins obscure; midrib slightly raised above, 2° veins slightly impressed; coriaceous; petiole angular, stout, ± pulvinate, 0.8–2.1 cm long, lepidote; stipules lanceolate-subulate, ± 3 mm long, lepidote, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences to 11(–18) cm long; the base of the main peduncle and lower ramifications lepidote, the remainder densely stellate-pubescent; pedicels to ± 5 mm long, articulated below the calyx; bracts and bracteoles to 4 mm long, ovate, acute, tomentose
Morphology General Buds
Floral buds globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellowish-green or greenish-brown, aromatic Male flowers: calyx campanulate, 3–6 mm long, divided for ± 1/3, lobes 4(–5), ovate-lanceolate, acute, outer surface densely stellate-pilose, inner surface pilose at the base, but becoming stellate-pubescent toward the mouth; androgynophore ± 1 mm long, dilated at the base and surrounded by a minute, glandular cushion-like disc, with a ring of 4–5 anthers in a single series below the apex and a vestigial style exserted from the centre of the ring Female flowers: as in the male, but slightly larger, 3–7 mm long; carpels 4–5, connate into a widely ovoid, glabrous ovary that tapers gradually to the styles, and which is surrounded at the base by (4–)5 free, rudimentary sessile stamens; styles ± 0.5–1 mm long, connate; stigmas recurved
sex Male
Male flowers: calyx campanulate, 3–6 mm long, divided for ± 1/3, lobes 4(–5), ovate-lanceolate, acute, outer surface densely stellate-pilose, inner surface pilose at the base, but becoming stellate-pubescent toward the mouth; androgynophore ± 1 mm long, dilated at the base and surrounded by a minute, glandular cushion-like disc, with a ring of 4–5 anthers in a single series below the apex and a vestigial style exserted from the centre of the ring
sex Female
Female flowers: as in the male, but slightly larger, 3–7 mm long; carpels 4–5, connate into a widely ovoid, glabrous ovary that tapers gradually to the styles, and which is surrounded at the base by (4–)5 free, rudimentary sessile stamens; styles ± 0.5–1 mm long, connate; stigmas recurved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruiting carpels free, indehiscent, 1–4(–5) maturing, oblong-ovoid, 3.7–9 cm long, 3–6 cm in diameter, 3.5–5.5 cm tall (including ridge or wing), woody, glabrous, glossy light brown, flat ventrally, strongly ridged dorsally, the wing to 4–10 mm long, the inner fruit wall densely appressed stellate-pilose; 1 seed per carpel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed flattened towards the ventral suture, oblong ellipsoid, ± 2.5–3 × 2.5–3.5 × 1.2–2 cm, testa light brown, rugose (an artifact of drying?), glabrous; cotyledons 2, thick and fleshy
Figures
Fig 8, p 53
Ecology
Mangrove swamps, landward side where fresh water intermingles with the salt water of the sea, locally common or dominant; also on sand at the tide line and in forest on coral rag; 0–5 m
Conservation
This species is widespread and common in mangrove, and its habitat not significantly threatened as far as is known. It is provisionally rated here as of “least concern” for conservation.
Note
The capsules are common in drift along the shore. The dorsal ridge of the capsule, often described as a keel, is homologous with a wing and actually functions as a sail. Fruits float on the surface of the ocean always with the ridge or wing upward and they are widely distributed by a combination of currents and wind. The record from T 8 is based on a sight record by Luke (pers. comm.) at Mtwara Mnazi Bay/Ruvuma Est MNP).
Distribution
Flora districts: K7 T3 6, T8 P Z Range: Mozambique Range: Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Seychelles, and introduced into the Mascarene Islands Range: Also widely distributed along the coasts of tropical Asia, Australia, and Pacific Islands

[FZ]

Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen tree up to c. 16 m. tall; young branches lepidote, but soon glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina c. 9–30 × 4–15 cm., very coriaceous, elliptic to ovate- or elliptic-oblong, apex acute or subobtuse, margin entire or undulate, base rounded or subcordate, green and glabrous above, with silvery scales covering the under surface and with scattered brown scales among them; petiole up to 2 cm. long, lepidote; stipules 5–6 mm. long, very caducous, lanceolate-subulate, lepidote.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellowish-green, in much-branched stellate-tomentose panicles c. 5 cm. long in the axils of the upper leaves; pedicels up to 5 mm. long, articulated below the calyx; bracts and bracteoles up to 2 mm. long, ovate, acute, tomentose. Female flowers; as in the male but slightly larger and with 5 carpels connate into a broadly ovoid glabrous ovary tapering gradually to the styles, surrounded at the base by 5 free rudimentary stamens; styles 0·5–1 mm. long, connate; stigmas recurved. Male flowers: calyx 5–6 mm. long, campanulate, tomentose, divided to about 1/3 of the way into 5 ovate acute lobes; androphore c. 1 mm. long, dilated at the base and surrounded by a minutely glandular cushion-like disk, with an apical ring of 5 anthers in a single series; vestigial style produced a little way through the centre of the ring.
sex Male
Male flowers: calyx 5–6 mm. long, campanulate, tomentose, divided to about 1/3 of the way into 5 ovate acute lobes; androphore c. 1 mm. long, dilated at the base and surrounded by a minutely glandular cushion-like disk, with an apical ring of 5 anthers in a single series; vestigial style produced a little way through the centre of the ring.
sex Female
Female flowers; as in the male but slightly larger and with 5 carpels connate into a broadly ovoid glabrous ovary tapering gradually to the styles, surrounded at the base by 5 free rudimentary stamens; styles 0·5–1 mm. long, connate; stigmas recurved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Ripe carpels 1–4, 6–8 × 3–4 cm., brown and shining, oblong-ovoid, strongly keeled along one side, 1-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 3 × 2 × 1 cm., flattened, oblong-ellipsoid, brown.

[FTEA]
Use
Trunks of this species are used for dhow masts in Lamu ( Abdulla 1139) and Zanzibar (U.O.P.Z.) and were formerly used for railroad sleepers ( Farquhar 6).

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Cook Is., Hawaii, Society Is.

Heritiera littoralis Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2009 Abu Husin, H. [59017], Peninsular Malaysia K000611087
Oct 1, 2009 Sugau [9], Sabah K000611088
Jan 9, 2006 Madulid et al. [27522], Philippines K000223767
Jan 9, 2006 Barbon, E.B. et al. [8947], Philippines K000223768
Jan 9, 2006 Romero [29723], Philippines K000223769
Mar 14, 2005 Eanghourt, K. [6], Cambodia K000271294
Arevei, J. [2769] K000241022 isotype

First published in Hort. Kew. 3: 546 (1789)

Accepted by

  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
  • GBIF ( 2021-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 1, 3: 546 (1789)
  • E.M. 5: 136–137, t. 10, fig. C/a-f (1900)
  • Engl., P.O.A. C: 272 (1895)
  • Engl., V.E. 3(2): 470, fig. 217 (1921)
  • F.M. 27: 55–57, t. 7 (1979)
  • F.T.A. 1: 225 (1868)
  • F.Z. 1(2): 564, t. 106 (1961)
  • K.T.S.: 548–549 (1961)
  • K.T.S.L.: 165, fig., map (1994).
  • T.S.K.: 42 (1936)
  • T.T.C.L.: 599 (1949)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 294 (1949)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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