Family:
Typhaceae Juss.
Genus:
Typha L.

Typha domingensis Pers.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Pantropical.
Morphology Stem
Stems to 3 m tall or more
Morphology Leaves
Leaves green or yellowish-green, the sheaths not auriculated or only the uppermost ones somewhat so; blade 5–15 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Male and female inflorescences usually separated by 1-5.5 cm; male inflorescences usually 15–35 cm long; female inflorescences 12–40 cm long, bright reddish-brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma linear, exserted

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 10 - 2000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, acuática
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Typhaceae, D. M. Napper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Stems 1.6–5 m. high.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-sheaths with sloping scarious-margined shoulders, rarely rounded, median leaves purple-spotted within and up the base of the blade; blade linear, up to 1.5 m. long, 8–13 mm. wide, with an obtuse tip and narrow base, flat above and convex beneath in dried material, glaucescent or green above, green beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence interrupted by a 1–3 cm. long internode, the ♀ spike sometimes interrupted or constricted. Male spike 17–34(–40) cm. long, 0.9–1.5 cm. wide; bracteoles flattened, forked or laciniate above, rarely linear, red-brown, ± as long as the stamens; stamens with white filaments; anthers 2.5–3.5 mm. long, with the connective produced into a dark globose tip usually broader than the anther, paler when immature; mature pollen grains free, deep primrose-yellow. Female spike 18–25(–34) cm. long, l.4–2(–2.2) cm. wide, bright chestnut- or reddish-brown at maturity; “pedicels” numerous, subpyramidal with distinct steps 0.5–13 per sq. mm.; bracteoles numerous; stigma linear, scarcely broader than the style butdarker, much longer than the rest of the flower; carpodia numerous, irregularly distributed throughout the spike, appearing as light patches where massed together.
sex Male
Male spike 17–34(–40) cm. long, 0.9–1.5 cm. wide; bracteoles flattened, forked or laciniate above, rarely linear, red-brown, ± as long as the stamens; stamens with white filaments; anthers 2.5–3.5 mm. long, with the connective produced into a dark globose tip usually broader than the anther, paler when immature; mature pollen grains free, deep primrose-yellow.
sex Female
Female spike 18–25(–34) cm. long, l.4–2(–2.2) cm. wide, bright chestnut- or reddish-brown at maturity; “pedicels” numerous, subpyramidal with distinct steps 0.5–13 per sq. mm.; bracteoles numerous; stigma linear, scarcely broader than the style butdarker, much longer than the rest of the flower; carpodia numerous, irregularly distributed throughout the spike, appearing as light patches where massed together.
Figures
Fig. 1/1–8.
Habitat
Swamps, dams, lakes and rivers; at high altitudes in Kenya (above 1500 m.) usually in association with T. latifolia; 0–2250 m.
Distribution
K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 U2 pantropical

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 10 - 2000 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Herb, aquatic herb.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 10–2000 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Córdoba, Magdalena, Santander.
Habit
Herb, Aquatic.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Enea

[FWTA]

Typhaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
A tall aquatic herb up to 12 ft. high
Morphology Leaves
Very long narrow leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences brown on tall stiff unbranched peduncles
Ecology
In permanent water.

[UPB]
Use Food
Food (State of the World's Plants 2016).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Chagos Archipelago, Comoros, Hawaii, Switzerland, Tennessee

Typha domingensis Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2013 Usteri, A. [230], Brazil K000887876 Yes
Feb 1, 1981 Sintenis, P.E.E. [166], Turkey K000883691 Yes
Feb 1, 1981 Sintenis, P.E.E. [166], Turkey K000883692 Yes
Feb 1, 1981 Sintenis, P.E.E. [166], Turkey K000883693 Yes
Spruce, R. [6411], Peru K000201636 Yes
Colenso, W. [6153a], New Zealand K000883683 Yes
Mexia, Y.E.J. [4414], Brazil K000837981 Yes
Harley, R.M. [16275], Brazil K000837985 Yes
Glaziou [7502], Brazil K000837990 Yes
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000837994 Yes
Faria, R. [24], Brazil K000837989 Yes
Thwaites, G.H.K. [C.P. 3218], Sri Lanka K000883685 Yes
Kuhlmann, J.G. [6123], Brazil K000837991 Yes
Gardner, G. [860], Brazil K000837980 Yes
Gardner, G. [860], Brazil K000837986 Yes
Constable, E.F. [5624b], New South Wales K000883684 isoneotype Yes
Harley, R.M. [19985], Brazil K000837983 Yes
Machado, O. [s.n.], Brazil K000837992 Yes
Mexia, Y.E.J. [4414], Brazil K000837982 Yes
Macrae, J. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000883686 Yes
Faria, R. [24], Brazil K000837987 Yes
Harley, R.M. [19985], Brazil K000837984 Yes
Faria, R. [24], Brazil K000837988 Yes
Hunt, D.R. [6314], Brazil K000837993 Yes
Schimper, W. [[366]], Sinai Typha angustata K000883690 Yes

First published in Syn. Pl. 2: 532 (1807)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1996). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 8: 1-382. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferraria, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 9-11: 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2004). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-54382. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Mavrodiev, E. & Kapitonova, O. (2015). Taxonomic composition of Typhaceae of the flora of European Russia Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 46: 5-25.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 2: 367-766. PAN, Polish academy of sciences.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferraria, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 9-11: 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2012-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Briggs & Johnson in Contrib. N.S. Wales Nat. Herb. 4: 62 (1968).
  • Crespo & Perez-Moreau in Darwiniana 14: 419 (1967).
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  • Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 532 (1807).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • Espitia Palencia, L. P., & Sarmiento Bernal, D. C. (2017). Caracterización de los Poductos Forestales no Maderables del Bosque Seco Tropical Asociado a las Comunidades del Caribe Colombiano (Tesis de pregrado). Universidad distrital Franciso José de Caldas.
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  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
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  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0