Ammi majus L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 243 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Macaronesia, Medit. to Iran and Arabian Peninsula. It is an annual and grows primarily in the temperate biome. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, has environmental uses, as a poison and a medicine and for food.

Descriptions

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 2030 - 2400 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 2030 - 2400 m.
[UPB]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 2030–2400 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Boyacá, Cundinamarca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glabrous annual (8–)25–100 cm, stems less stout than those of the preceding species, terete, striate, branched from base
Morphology Branches
Branches long, ascending
Morphology Leaves
Lowest leaves pinnate or pinnate-ternate with few segments, often persisting until flowering time, segments very variable in size, regularly and sharply serrate, oblanceolate to broadly obovate Upper leaves reducing in size, pinnate-ternate to variously pinnatisect, but the narrower segments remaining broadest at or above the middle, and almost always serrate-dentate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts large, pinnatifid, shorter than the rays
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbels ± 30-flowered; pedicels 2–7(–9) mm, the longer subequalled by the 8–12 linear-subulate, entire bracteoles Umbels somewhat unequally (10–)15–50(–75)-rayed, the rays 2–6 cm, shorter in the centre of umbel, not set on a disk and not closing up together in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles ± 4–16 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit glabrous, ovoid-oblong, 2 mm long, ribs narrow and not prominent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles reflexed, slightly shorter than those of A. visnaga, but still exceeding the conical stylopodia.
Ecology
Gravelly hillsides, riverine thickets, along ditches in fields, damp places, weed in fields and gardens, on sandy gravel soils; alt. 50–400 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Apr.–Jun.
Distribution
Africa (Morocco to Libya), Macaronesia (Madeira, Tenerife), Ethiopia; cultivated and adventive in China. Common in the steppe region of Iraq, and also on irrigated alluvial plain in the desert region. S & Mediterranean Europe (France, Portugal & Spain to Balkans & Greece), Aegean Isles, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, N
Vernacular
Common Bishop’s weed; also Great Ammi (Am.), GARAIR (for GHURAIR), (Ir.-Baghdad district, Guest 2508, Guest & Darwish al-Haidari 2230); ZAND AL-ARŪS (Ir.-Khalis, Lazar 1164); KHAIZARĀN
Note
Baghdad, H. Ahmad 9820). Ibn al-Baitar (c. 1240) mentioned AKHALLA as the name of an umbelliferous plant, the seeds of which were used to make a soothing mouthwash and which LeClerck (1877–83) refers to this species, though the passage seems more likely to refer to A. visnaga, q.v. As regards the present species, a note on a specimen of it communicated to Herb. Kew by E Gouldring in 1929 noted that the plant had been reported as obnoxious and was said to cause an affection to the eyes of animals browsing on it, which led to an opacity of the cornea in their eyes. Guest (1938) noted that the plant was said to be poisonous and to cause blindness in horses which grazed it.
[FIQ]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Slender but wiry glabrous annual herb, 0.25–1.2(–1.8) m., with a slender taproot.
Morphology Stem
Stem terete or feebly angled, striate, rather sparingly branched.
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves (1–)2-pinnate, with up to 3 pairs of stalked pinnae, the pinnae opposite but pinnules frequently alternate; segments oblanceolate to elliptic or broadly obovate, ± 1–7 × 0.4–8 cm., sharply toothed, the teeth with a long, white, fine, whitish mucro, subaristate; petioles ± 4.5–16 cm.; sheaths triangular to oblong, membranous-margined, finely striate, 0.8–1.5 cm.; upper leaves gradually more narrowly divided, more shortly petiolate, the uppermost sessile on the sheaths with linear and remotely toothed segments; more rarely forms occur with all the leaves regularly bipinnate with narrow segments.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels large and showy, on divergent peduncles ± 6–18 cm. long; rays (7–)15–50 or more, slender, ± 2.5–6.5 cm. long; involucre of several bracts, these usually pinnately divided into filiform pale-aristate segments, sometimes simple in dwarfed forms growing in unfavourable conditions; partial umbels ± 18–30-flowered, the pedicels very unequal, ± 1–9 mm.; involucel of ± 8–10 narrow, membranous-margined, subulate bracteoles with a pale terminal arista, the longest usually subequalling the pedicels at anthesis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals ± 1 mm., white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruiting calyx obsolete; stylopodia bluntly conical, exceeded by the slender, pale, deflexed styles. Fruit narrowly oblong-elliptic, ± 2–2.5 × 0.75–1 mm., glabrous, when ripe blackish with pale, narrow, prominent ribs.
Figures
Fig. 16.
Habitat
Self-sown exotic; 1650 m.
Distribution
K4 a native of S. Europe, the Mediterranean region, SW. Asia and ? Ethiopia, not infrequent as a casual in northern Europe and elsewhere
[FTEA]

Uses

Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).
[UPB]

Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
[UPFC]

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora of Iraq

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0