Family:
Apiaceae Lindl.
Genus:
Apium L.

Apium graveolens L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia to N. Africa, Europe to W. Himalaya. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1700 - 2700 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
An erect biennial or perennial herb, with the characteristic smell of celery, up to 1 m. or sometimes a little more.
Morphology Stem
Stem with prominent rather coarse grooves, rising from a large fleshy taproot.
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves simply pinnate, 10–14 cm. long, with deltate-rhomboid segments up to 4·5 cm. long, often deeply 3-lobed; bases distinctly sheathing; the lower ones obviously petiolate, the uppermost more or less sessile. Stem leaves ternate with rhomboid segments to narrowly lanceolate-elliptic and subentire above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels terminal and lateral, shortly pedunculate or ± sessile in leaf axils.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 0, rays 7–15, up to 2·5 cm. long, rather unequal; bracteoles 0, with flowers on pedicels of 1–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Calyx teeth obsolete; petals greenish-white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit c. 1·5 mm. long, very broadly ovoid; stylopodium depressed; styles c. 0·5 mm. long; carpophore shortly 2-cleft.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae solitary in the intervals and 2 on the commissural face.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1700–2700 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Cundinamarca, Huila, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect, yellowish-green, glabrous biennial herb, 30–60 cm, with a strong and characteristic smell
Morphology Stem
Stem rather weak, strongly sulcate, much-branched above
Morphology Leaves
Radical leaves simply pinnate with (3–)5(–7) cuneate-ovate, 5–30 × 4–35 mm incised leaflets, long-petiolate; stem leaves becoming pinnate with trisect segments which are obtusely or subacutely dentate, the teeth shortly mucronate with a percurrent vein; uppermost leaves sessile on the sheaths, small, simply trisect, the segments lanceolate and entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbels with 10–20 small (± 1 mm diameter) greenish-white flowers; pedicels 1–3 mm, involucel absent Main umbel with 5–12 unequal rays 0.5–2.5 cm, involucre absent Umbels axillary and pseudo-terminal, shortly pedunculate or sessile in the axils of a small ternate leaf or at the junction of two or more main branches
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit broadly ovoid, ± 1.5 mm long, blackish when ripe, the ribs prominent, pale, narrow; stylopodia shortly conical, subequalled by the deflexed styles.
Ecology
Damp places, along streams, ditches in irrigated gardens; often cultivated or subspontaneous as a garden escape; alt. up to ± 500 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Apr.–May/Jun.
Distribution
Quite common on the alluvial plain in the desert region of Iraq, occasional in the steppe and in other parts of the desert region. Most of Europe, especially in coastal regions (from Britain & Scandinavia to W Russia, Greece & Crimea), Crete, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India to China & Korea, C Asia (Turkmenistan, Tajikistan), N Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Libya), Macaronesia (Canary Is.).
Note
Wild Celery, formerly also known as Smallage; KARAFS (Arabic, a name mentioned by Ibn al-Baitar (c. 1240) who quotes the opinions of Galen, Dioscorides and others on its properties), often colloquially called KRAFAS in Iraq.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[FIQ]
Use
Medicinally, its properties are listed by Wren (1956) and Rawi & Chakravarty (1964) and may briefly be summed up as carminative, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac. According to Watt (1809), it has also been used by local doctors in India as an emmenagogue for the expulsion of stone. Burkill (1935) points out that celery has certainly been in cultivation since fairly remote times, its oldest use probably being for flavouring. It has been found in Egypt in a tomb of the 20th Pharaonic dynasty woven into a garland; the Romans also used it for garlands and the ancient Greeks as a potherb, while the Chinese had it some 19 centuries ago. Wild forms of the plant contain a glucoside, apiumoside, also found in the leaves of parsley and allied herbs, which may, he suggests, be the cause of a certain measure of indigestibility, and a volatile oil is also present, most abundantly in the seeds. The modern cultivated forms of the plant are innocuous, the edible blanched leaf-stalks being used as a vegetable in salads, for flavouring soups and so on.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Nova Scotia, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil South, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, Free State, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Hungary, Idaho, India, Juan Fernández Is., Kirgizstan, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Marianas, Marshall Is., Massachusetts, Mexico Northwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Sinai, Socotra, South Carolina, South Dakota, St.Helena, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Utah, Vietnam, Washington, West Virginia

Recorded in error in:

Juan Fernández Is.

Apium graveolens L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Stirton, C.H. [9619], South Africa 51726.000
Glaziou, A. [20344], Brazil K001130794
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7212] K001126924
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7212] K001126926
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7212] K001126925
Murray, R.P. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091169

First published in Sp. Pl.: 264 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jonsell, B. & Karlsson, T. (eds.) (2010). Flora Nordica 6: 1-298. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ri?abinina, Z.N. & Kni?azev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Urgamal, M. (2009). Flora of Mongolia 10: 1-114. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Ulaanbaatar.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2019). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 20(2): 1-444. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of Iraq

  • Anth in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 18: 289 (1935);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 856 (1872);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 101 (1830);
  • E. Nasir in Nasir & Ali, Fl. Pak. 20: 32, f. 10, (1972);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 72 (1967);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 10 (1933);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 460 (1964);
  • Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Balc. 1: 985 (1927);
  • Husain & Kasim, Cult. Pl. Iraq 105 (1975);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 264 (1753);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 737 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 621 (1970);
  • Peşmen in Fl. Turk. 4: 422 (1972);
  • Rawi & Chakr. in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 15: 14 (1964);
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 298 (1987);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 371 (1950);
  • She Menglan & Watson in Fl. China 14: 76 (2005).
  • Tackh., Stud. Fl. Egypt ed. 2: 388 (1974);
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 109 (1950);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 416 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 515 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2017). Suppressions and additions to the flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile) Botany Letters 164: 351-360.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Ri?abinina, Z.N. & Kni?azev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Urgamal, M. (2009). Flora of Mongolia 10: 1-114. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Ulaanbaatar.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2019). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 20(2): 1-444. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Allen, D., Bilz, M., Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M., Timoshyna, A., & Window, J. (2014). European Red List of medicinal plants. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 10:907382.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
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