Family:
Apiaceae Lindl.

Cuminum cyminum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Iraq to Afghanistan. It is has environmental uses, as a medicine and for food.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Short erect annual 15–20(–30) cm, rather bushy with ascending branches from near base upwards
Morphology Leaves
Leaves all similar, only the lowest shortly petiolate, most sessile on short, narrow sheaths, ± biternate into long filiform segments (to 4 cm or more in lowest leaves)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 1.5–5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels many, leaf-opposed, 3–6-rayed, rays 0.5–1 cm, equalled or exceeded by 3–6 bracts of the involucre Partial umbels few- (2–6) flowered, flowers magenta, ± 2 mm in diameter; fruiting pedicels 2–6 mm, exceeded by the 3 or 4 bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 4–6 × 2 mm, styles short, rigid, divergent, often reddish.
Ecology
In a silty desert depression, roadsides and waste places on the plains; alt. up to 600 m or more
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Mar.–Jun.
Distribution
Occasional in the desert region of Iraq, particularly on the alluvial plain. SE & Mediterranean Europe, Cyprus, Syria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Afghanistan, C Asia (Turkmenistan), N Africa (Morocco, Libya). Widely cultivated also on a small scale within this region as well as in NW India, China (Xinjiang), N America, S America (Chile) and elsewhere.
Note
Cumin, sometimes also spelled Cummin; KAMMŪN (Ar., Ir., Eg. etc.).

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
comino

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Comino, Planta de cominos

[FIQ]
Use
The fruits of this plant, generally called Cumin Seed, are a well-known condiment used for flavouring since antiquity. Uphof (1968) sums up its medicinal properties in home remedies as antispasmodic, antihysteric and stomachic. It is a common ingredient in curry powders, cordials and is also used in Leiden cheese. Seeds contain over 7% of essential oil (Schischkin 1950), which is used in perfumery. A second species of this genus, C. setifolium (Boiss.) K.-Pol. [Psammogeton setifolius (Boiss.) Boiss.] has been found at station T.4, on the Syrian section of the Kirkuk-Homs-Banias oil pipeline, and might occur in adjacent Iraq. It can easily be distinguished from C. cyminum by the long (5 mm or more) setose hairs on the secondary ridges of the fruit.

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq

Introduced into:

Algeria, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Benin, Bulgaria, East Himalaya, Eritrea, France, India, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Massachusetts, Mexico Northeast, Morocco, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Spain, Texas, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang

English
Cumin

Cuminum cyminum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111366 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111364 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7213], India K001126927 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111367 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111368 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111365 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111363 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 594] K001111362 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 254 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Blakelock in Kew Bull. 3: 433 (1948);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 1080 (1872);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 201 (1830);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 97, f. 29 (1972);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 73 (1967);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 26 (1933);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 460 (1964);
  • Hayek, Prod. Fl. Balc. 1: 1058 (1927);
  • Husain & Kasim, Cult. Pl. Iraq 105 (1975);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 254 (1753);
  • Pu Fading & Watson in Fl. China 14: 75 (2005).
  • Rawi & Chakr., ibid. Tech. Bull. 15: 33 (1964);
  • Rawi in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 14: 91 (1964);
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 141 (1987);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 369 (1950);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 568 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0