Family:
Apiaceae Lindl.

Eryngium campestre L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Caucasus, NW. Africa.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Plant yellowish or glaucescent-green, commonly up to 60 cm high
Morphology Leaves
Cauline leaves sessile-amplexicaul from a cordate base, decreasing upwards and similarly spinose Radical leaves pinnatifid or ternate-pinnatifid, each pinna decurrent along the axis to the next, pinnae and wings with strong, long spines commonly longer than their width at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence corymbose, final branches shorter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula small, 8–12 mm in diameter, roundish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts 2 or 3 × exceeding capitula, stoutly spiny, entire or with one or two weak spines at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles entire and subulate, sharply spiny, much exceeding flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate, the excurrent vein forming a ± long mucro into which the lamina tapers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals oblong, narrow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit compressed-ovoid, with acute lanceolate scales.
Ecology
Lower mountains, steppic hills and plains, a weed in fields; alt. 350–900 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: (Apr.–)May–Jul.
Distribution
Occasional in the NW sectors of the lower forest and moist steppe zones of Iraq. W, C & S Europe (from Britain to W Russia, Greece and Crimea), Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Siberia, N Africa (Morocco to Libya).
Note
The Iraqi plant is the “var. virens Link”; but the variety hardly seems sufficiently well-defined to perpetuate here. Pimenov & Tamamschian in Fl. Iranica 162: 53 (1987) do not recognise this species as occurring in the Flora Iranica area, preferring to include it and the following species within E. billardieri, q.v.

[FIQ]
Use
The root of this species has long been collected in Britain and other parts of Europe for its medicinal properties which are summed up by Wren (1956) as diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant, it having been used in folk medicine as an alleviant of uterine irritation and bladder afflictions.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Denmark, Great Britain, Maryland, New Jersey, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Québec, Sweden

Eryngium campestre L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 233 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hand, R. (ed.) (2015). Supplementary notes to the flora of Cyprus VIII Willdenowia 45: 245-259.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Wörz, A. (2011). Revision of Eryngium L. (Apiaceae-Saniculoideae): General part and Palaearctic species Bibliotheca Botanica 159: 1-498.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 824 (1872);
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt: 2: 155 (2000).
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 88 (1830);
  • Davis, Fl. Turk. 4: 303 (1972);
  • Hand.-Mazz. in Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 27: 87 (1913);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 233 (1753);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 691 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 579 (1970);
  • Nabělek in Publ. Fac. Sci. Univ. Masaryk 35: 118 (1923);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 78 (1950);
  • Wolff, l.c. 50 (1913);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 506 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://bsbi.org/archaeophytes epublication.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Jonsell, B. & Karlsson, T. (eds.) (2010). Flora Nordica 6: 1-298. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/