Family:
Apiaceae Lindl.
Genus:
Scandix L.

Scandix pecten-veneris L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, Macaronesia to NW. India.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect, branched, 20–50 cm, almost glabrous to sparingly hairy or with the stem ± densely and shortly spreading-hairy; stem and branches ± deeply sulcate
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves long-petiolate, upper sessile, all with broad sheaths furnished with membranous, long-ciliate margins Leaves all similar but reducing in size upwards, narrowly deltoid or oblong in outline, tripinnate with short, narrowly linear segments, margins scabrid or smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 1.5–8 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels with 1–3 stout rays, sometimes true compound umbels with no involucre, sometimes apparently one or more rays being leafless branches since their point of junction is subtended by a true leaf; rays 0.6–2 cm long when in ripe fruit Partial umbels 3–10-flowered, petals inconspicuously radiate, outer flowers ± 2 mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles 5, broadly lanceolate, simple or bifid or trifid above, ciliate-margined
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels becoming incrassate and flattened, mostly to 2 mm long in ripe fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fertile part of fruits 7–15 mm long, linear, shortly hispid; beak 28–50 mm, long, flattened and tapering, keel scabrid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodia very small, disk shortly cylindrical with a crenate edge above; styles short, often less than 1 mm, thick, persistent.
Ecology
In the mountains on grassy places among shrubs and trees, shady spots in oakwoods on limestone, in fields in the valleys etc., hillsides, and fields on the upper plain, fields, gardens and ditches on irrigated alluvial plain; up to alt. 700–1100(–1600) m or more
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Mar./Apr.–May/Jun.
Distribution
Common in the lower forest zone and steppe region of Iraq, also on the irrigated alluvial plain in the desert region. W, C & Mediterranean Europe to W Russia, Crimea, Cyprus, Aegean Isles, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, NE Mediterranean Egypt, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, C. Asia (Turkmenistan to Siberia), Kashmir, N Africa (Morocco to Libya). Introduced in many other parts of the world, including S Africa, Tasmania and N America.
Note
Venus’ Comb, Shepherd’s Needle; MINQĀR AL-LAQLAQ (“stork’s beak”), Ir., Guest 1118, 1802) or HALQ AL-LAQLAQ (“stork’s throat”), Ir., id.) or sometimes HALQ HĀJI LAQLAQ (“stork, the pilgrim’s throat”) (Guest 1933); KAIZANŪK (Kurd.-Amadiya, Majid Mustafa in Guest 1254); ?SŌLAQA (Kurd.-Pers., Mandali, Guest 1802).

[FIQ]
Use
Schischkin (1950) sums up the economic importance of this plant as “a weed, mainly of spring crops” – to which we have nothing to add.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arizona, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Victoria, Washington

English
Shepherd's Needle

Scandix pecten-veneris L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2007 Rico, L. [1701], Armenia K000297234 No
Murray, R.P. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091031 No
Lowe, R.T. [103], Canary Is. K001091030 No
Machado [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091032 No
Lowe, R.T. [131], Canary Is. K001091029 No
Kuntze, O. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091028 No
Day, C.D. [134], Turkey K000341670 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 256 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce). Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fischer, M.A. & Niklfeld, H. (eds.) (2011). Floristische Neufunde (99-123). Neilreichia 6: 365-396.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jonsell, B. & Karlsson, T. (eds.) (2010). Flora Nordica 6: 1-298. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Komiljon, T., Natalya, B., Avazbek, B., Dilnoza, A., Ziyoviddin, Y., Deng, T. & Sun, H. (2020). Flora of the Dzhizak Province, Uzbekistan: 1-523. China Forestry Publishing House.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2019). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 20(2): 1-444. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Anth in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 18: 289 (1935);
  • Blakelock in Kew Bull. 3: 436 (1948);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 914 (1872);
  • Bornmuller in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 58B: 279 (1938);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 221 (1830);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 94, f. 28 (1972);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 37 (1967);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 89 (1933);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 454 (1964);
  • Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Balc. 1: 1005 (1927);
  • Hedge & Lamond in Fl. Iranica 162: 107 (1987).
  • Hedge & Lamond in Fl. Turk. 4: 328 (1972);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 256 (1753);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 697 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 587 (1970);
  • Nabělek in Publ. Fac. Sci. Univ. Masaryk 35: 124 (1923);
  • Rawi in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 14: 95 (1964);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 141 (1950);
  • V. Tackh., Stud. Fl. Egypt ed. 2: 391 (1974);
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 111 (1950);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 390 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 531 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://bsbi.org/archaeophytes. epublication.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce). Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images