Family:
Apiaceae Lindl.

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link

This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Central Asia and Pakistan, Macaronesia, N. Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb with a slender taproot, 0.1–1.25 m. tall, branched from the base and densely bushy with many short, branched stems to tall and simple or with rather few long, ascending branches.
Morphology Stem
Stems slender, wiry, terete, finely striate, glabrous or with downwardly-appressed strigulose hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves generally withered by the time of fruiting, bi- to subtripinnate with pinnatifid segments, deltoid and ± 3–15 × 2–12 cm. in outline, ultimate divisions ± 2–8 × 1–3 mm., ± furnished with upwardly directed, whitish strigulose hairs especially on the lower surface; sheaths ± 2–5 mm., pale-margined, indistinctly demarcated from the channelled ventral surface of the petiole; petiole ± 1.5–4.5 cm.; median leaves similar or the segments becoming narrower and more elongate, more shortly petiolate, sheaths long and narrow with involute margins; upper leaves similar but reduced, to trisect with elongate segments (the upper especially long and up to ± 50 × 5 mm., subentire to regularly acutely serrate), sessile on the narrow sheaths.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels very numerous to rather few, on slender, ± 1.5–13 cm. peduncles; rays 2–12, terete, appressed-strigulose, ± 7–30 mm.; involucre usually absent, rarely one narrowly linear bract present; partial umbels ± 2–18-flowered; pedicels very unequal, 0–4 mm., indumentum similar to that of the rays; involucel of ± 4–8 bracteoles 1.5–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-teeth very small to obsolete.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to pink or purple, the outermost petals of outer partial umbels not to decidedly radiant (to ± 2 mm.), the inner or all petals ± 0.75–1 mm., ± strigose-hairy dorsally.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, ± 3–5 × 2–3 mm., both mericarps densely covered with long, tuberculate, glochidiate-tipped, white to purple spines along the obscure secondary ribs, or one with shorter spines or verrucae; stylopodia conical, short; styles short to slender, ± 0.25–1.25 mm., subequalling or much longer than the stylopodia.

[FWTA]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A wiry herb
Ecology
In montane vegetation.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Widespread in Africa and Eurasia, introduced elsewhere.
Morphology General Habit
Plant up to c. 1 m tall; stems finely striate, glabrous or with stiff downwardly directed hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2-pinnate with pinnatifid segments c. 2–8 x 1–3 mm, with stiff forwardly directed hairs particularly beneath; the lower ones petiolate, the upper sessile on the indistinctly demarcated sheaths
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels on 1.5–13 cm long peduncles; rays 2–12, c. 7–30 mm long, appressed strigulose; bracts absent or rarely 1 linear bract present; flowers c. 2–18 in each partial umbel, on 0–4 mm long pedicels; involucel of c. 4–8 bracteoles 1.5–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes small to obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, pink or purple, setulose outside, c. 1 mm long, or the outermost petals of outer partial umbels up to c. 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits ellipsoid, c. 3–5 x 2–3 mm, densely covered by glochidiate-tipped spines along the obscure secondary ribs; styles about as long as to much longer than the stylopodia.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb with a slender taproot, 0.1–1.25 m, branched from the base and densely bushy with many short, branched stems to tall and simple or with rather few, long, ascending branches
Morphology Stem
Stems slender, wiry, terete, finely striate, glabrous or with downwardly-appressed strigulose hairs
Morphology Leaves
Upper leaves similar but reduced, varying to trisect with elongate segments (upper especially long), sessile on narrow sheaths Basal leaves generally withered by time of fruiting, bi- to subtri-pinnate with pinnatifid segments, deltoid and 3–15 × 2–12 cm in outline, ultimate divisions 2–8 × 1–3 mm, ± furnished with upwardly directed white strigulose hairs especially on lower surface; sheaths 2–5 mm, pale-margined; petiole 1.5–4.5 cm Median leaves similar or segments becoming narrower and more elongate, more shortly petiolate, sheaths long and narrow with involute margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels very numerous to rather few, on slender 1.5–13 cm peduncles; rays (2–)3–12, appressed-strigulose, 7–30 mm long; involucre usually absent, sometimes one linear bract present Partial umbels 2–18-flowered, pedicels very unequal, 0–4 mm, indumentum similar to that of rays; involucel of 4–8 bracteoles 1.5–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth very small to obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to pink or purple, outermost petals of outer partial umbels not to decidedly radiant (to 2 mm), the inner or all petals 0.75–1 mm, strigose-hairy dorsally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, 3–5 × 2–3 mm, both mericarps densely covered with long, glochidiate-tipped, white to purple spines along the obscure secondary ribs, or one mericarp with spines shorter; stylopodia conical, short; styles very short to slender, 0.2–1.2 mm, style and stigma clearly longer than stylopodia.
Distribution
W, C & S. Europe, SW, S & E Asia, N, tropical and S Africa; introduced in N America and the W Indies.

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology Stem
Stem terete, glabrous, with fine grooves, sometimes purplish-tinged especially towards the base, little branched in African specimens.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves very variable, from 2-pinnate to 3-foliate; margins coarsely serrate to subentire, with numerous appressed white bristly hairs on the lamina, rhachis and petiole.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of terminal and lateral compound umbels; bracts 0 (1), rays 2–5 (-10), with appressed white bristles; bracteoles linear, acute, almost equalling the pedicels of the few-flowered partial umbels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, the outer ones sometimes slightly radiate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3–5 mm. long, ovoid, densely covered with spreading, spiny glochidiate hairs, usually blackish-green when mature; sometimes 1, or rarely both, mericarps lacking spines and then covered with warty tubercles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Calyx teeth minute; stylopodium depressed; styles very variable in length, in African material usually c. twice as long as the stylopodium.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed curved in section, with the ends facing towards the commissure, but not recurved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae 5, large and well developed.
Morphology General Habit
An erect annual herb up to 1 m., usually much smaller.
Morphology Roots
Root system a well-developed primary taproot, with limited secondary branches.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arkansas, Brazil South, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Delaware, District of Columbia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Northeast, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, St.Helena, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [56], Cameroon K000338827 No
May 1, 1999 Buzgo, M. [687], Cameroon K000338826 No
May 1, 1999 Kamundi, D. [689], Cameroon K000338828 No
Jan 1, 1989 Webster, M.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811266 Yes
Jan 1, 1989 s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811268 Yes
Jan 1, 1989 Webster, M.M. [5932], United Kingdom K000811265 Yes
Schimper [1874], Ethiopia K000272608 Yes
Schimper [1874], Ethiopia K000272609 Yes
Summerhayes, R.S. [2708], Great Britain K000811235 Yes
Taylor, P.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811219 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811231 Yes
Baker, F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811232 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811241 Yes
Stevens, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811244 Yes
Last, G.V.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811249 Yes
Welch, M.M. [7320], United Kingdom K000811264 Yes
Webster, M.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811267 Yes
Makins, F.K. [162], Great Britain K000811223 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811229 Yes
Wallroth, F.W. [219] K000695532 Yes
Bromfield, W.A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811217 Yes
Clarke, C.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811225 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [12], Great Britain K000811230 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [956], United Kingdom K000811250 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [2984], United Kingdom K000811227 Yes
Clarke, C.B. [2544], United Kingdom K000811226 Yes
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811259 Yes
A.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811233 Yes
Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811215 Yes
Parsons, M. [H1356], United Kingdom K000811234 Yes
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811248 Yes
Riley, L.A.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811218 Yes
Goddard, H.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811220 Yes
Wallroth, F.W. [s.n.], Europe K000695533 Yes
Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811216 Yes
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811237 Yes
Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28471], Cameroon K000051419 No
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811252 Yes
Crosfield, A.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811245 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [270], United Kingdom K000811221 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811260 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [2932], United Kingdom K000811239 Yes
Joad, G.C. [1882], United Kingdom K000811255 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811269 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811251 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811258 Yes
Hosking, A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811256 Yes
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811247 Yes
Brown, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811257 Yes
Riddelsdell, H.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811238 Yes
Tatum, E.J. [676], United Kingdom K000811224 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], Great Britain K000811228 Yes
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811253 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [1428], United Kingdom K000811240 Yes
Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811242 Yes
Taylor, P.G. [0593], United Kingdom K000811246 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811222 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [247], United Kingdom K000811254 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811261 Yes
Gilbert, J.L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000811236 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [988], United Kingdom K000811243 Yes
Day, C.D. [616], Turkey Caucalis arvensis K000341674 No

First published in Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 265 (1821)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Hand, R. (ed.) (2015). Supplementary notes to the flora of Cyprus VIII Willdenowia 45: 245-259.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Longbottom, W.D., Naczi, R.F.C. & Knapp, W.M. (2016). Flowering plant species new to Delaware and Maryland Bartonia 69: 1-19.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2019). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 20(2): 1-444. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Enum. Pl. Berol. 1: 265 (1821).

Flora of Iraq

  • Cullen in Fl. Turk. 4; 520 (1972);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 42 (1967);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 455 (1964);
  • Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 265 (1821);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 700 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 591 (1970);
  • Peev in Fl. Iranica 162: 123 (1987).
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 159 (1950);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 395 (1972);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://bsbi.org/archaeophytes epublication.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Longbottom, W.D., Naczi, R.F.C. & Knapp, W.M. (2016). Flowering plant species new to Delaware and Maryland Bartonia 69: 1-19.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Williams, J.K. (2010). Additions to the Alien vascular flora of Mexico, with comments on the shared species of Texas, Mexico and Belize Phytoneuron 2010-3: 1-7.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2019). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 20(2): 1-444. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 351 (1974).
  • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 340 (1970).
  • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 572 (1978).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 639 (1959).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 366 (1952).
  • Link, Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol. 1: 265 (1821).

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images