Ficus sycomorus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Syria.

[FTEA]

Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 20(–30) m. tall; trunk short; main branches spreading.
Morphology Twigs
Leafy twigs (1–)2–6 mm. thick, densely minutely puberulous and with much longer white to yellowish hairs especially on the nodes; periderm flaking off when dry.
Morphology Leaves
Lamina chartaceous to coriaceous, ovate to elliptic, obovate or subcircular, (1–)2.5–12(–21) × (0.5–)2–11(–16) cm., apex rounded to obtuse, base cordate to sometimes obtuse, margin subentire, slightly repand or denticulate; upper surface scabrous to scabridulous, sometimes almost smooth, hispidulous to strigillose, on the main veins whitish hirtellous to hirsute, lower surface puberulous to hispidulous, on the main veins partly whitish hirtellous or hirsute; lateral veins 5–10 pairs; petiole (0.5–)1–4(–6) cm. long, 1–3 mm. thick, densely minutely white puberulous and with much longer white to yellowish hairs, with the periderm flaking off when dry; stipules 0.5–2.5 cm. long, white puberulous to tomentose or partly hirtellous to hirsute, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Figs solitary or sometimes in pairs in the leaf-axils or just below the leaves, on up to 10 cm. long unbranched leafless branchlets or on up to 20(–35) cm. long branched leafless branchlets on the older branches down to the trunk; peduncle 0.3–2.5 cm. long, 1–3 mm. thick; basal bracts 2–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle obovoid to pyriform or subglobose, often stipitate at least when dry, 1.5–5 cm. in diameter when fresh, (1–)1.5–3 cm. when dry, white to yellowish or brownish velutinous or densely tomentose to sparsely puberulous or pubescent, sometimes almost glabrous, yellowish to reddish at maturity.
Habitat
Forest edges, lakesides, riverine, extending into drier country especially where seasonal water collects at foot of hills and scarps, rock outcrops; 0–2200 m.
Distribution
extending to Egypt, Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, the Cape Verde Is., South Africa and Namibia K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Large tree up to c. 30 m tall, buttressed, with a trunk up to 3.5 m in diam.; crown spreading
Morphology General Bark
Bark greyish-brown, flaking, often becoming yellowish on older trunks; slash pale brown, yellowish or pinkish; latex milky white
Morphology Branches
Young branches with brown bark, puberulous to pubescent or lanate, often peeling off in scales when dry
Morphology Leaves
Leaves almost in 2 rows; stipules lateral, free, covering buds as scarious lanate to hirsute grey or brown scales, caducous leaving a circular fringe of whitish or brownish hairs; petiole 3–5 cm long, often with scaly peeling outer layer when dry; blade ± leathery, broadly ovate, elliptic or suborbicular, 3–15 x 2–10.5 cm, base rounded to narrowly cordate, margin subentire to crenulate, apex rounded, acute or shortly acuminate, dull, slightly scabrous or smooth above, scabrous or smooth, often pubescent below, with 4–8 pairs of lateral veins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Figs 1–2 together, either on clusters of leafless branchlets on the trunk or older branches or in the axil of normal leaves, on peduncles up to 1.5 cm long; basal bracts 3, ovate to triangular, 3–4 mm long, puberulous; receptacle pear-shaped, obovoid or subglobose, often ± stipitate, 1.8–2.5(–5) x 1–2 cm, puberulous to tomentose; ostiole prominent, with 3–5 clearly visible triangular ostiolar bracts.

[FZ]

Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 20(30) m. tall, trunk short, up to c. 2 m. diam., main branches spreading.
Morphology Twigs
Leafy twigs 2–6 mm. thick, densely, minutely puberulous and with much longer, white to yellowish hairs, especially on the nodes; periderm flaking off when dry.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf lamina ovate to elliptic, or obovate to subcircular (1)2.5–12(21) x (0.5)2–11(16) cm., chartaceous to coriaceous, apex rounded to obtuse, base cordate sometimes obtuse, margin subentire, slightly repand or denticulate; superior surface scabrous to scabridulous, sometimes almost smooth or hispidulous to strigillose, the main veins whitish hirtellous to hirsute, inferior surface puberulous to hispidulous, the main veins sparsely whitish hirtellous to hirsute; lateral veins 5–10 pairs; petiole (0.5)1–4(6) cm. long, 1–3 mm. thick, densely, minutely white puberulous and with much longer white to yellowish hairs, with the periderm flaking off when dry; stipules 5–25 mm. long, white puberulous to tomentose or partly hirtellous to hirsute, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Figs solitary or sometimes in pairs in the leaf axils or just below the leaves on unbranched, leafless branchlets up to 20 cm. long, or on branched, leafless branchlets up to 20(35) cm. long, or borne on the older branches down to the trunk; peduncle 3–25 mm. long, 1–3 mm. thick; basal bracts 2–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle obovoid to pyriform or subglobose, often stipitate, at least when dry, 1.5–5 cm. in diam. when fresh, (1)1.5–3 cm. in diam. when dry, velutinous or densely tomentose to sparsely puberulous or pubescent, sometimes almost glabrous, yellowish to reddish at maturity.

[FWTA]

Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A tree to 60 ft. high, with pale trunk and widespreading crown
Morphology General Indumentum
Pilose branchlets and scabrid leaves
Ecology
Generally by streams in the savannah regions.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
N3 widespread in tropical Africa, west to Senegal, south to South Africa.
Ecology
Altitude c. 1100 m.
Note
The distribution of the two subspecies of F. sycomorus overlap in Ethiopia and Somalia.

Native to:

Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Palestine, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Sycomore fig

Ficus sycomorus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1983 Sim, T. R. [5644], Mozambique K000243368 Unknown type material Yes
Angus, A. [288], Zambia 13142.000 No
Angus, A. [1026], Zambia 15965.000 No
White, F. [2185], Zambia 15966.000 No
White, F. [2922], Zambia 15971.000 No
White, F. [2208], Zambia 15972.000 No
White, F. [1832], Zambia 16917.000 No
Sangster, R.G. [512], Uganda 16920.000 No
Richards, H.M. [13107], Zambia 22752.000 No
Verdcourt, B. [1532], Kenya 22921.000 No
Polhill, R. [1141], Tanzania 22940.000 No
Richards, H.M. [13176], Zambia 23420.000 No
Richards, H.M. [14805], Botswana 23749.000 No
Verdcourt, B. [3762], Kenya 29047.040 No
Ash [384], Ethiopia 33268.000 No
Vercourt, B., Kenya 35948.000 No
Headley, P.M. [231], Ethiopia 7506.000 No
Baron, R. [4885], Madagascar K000243427 Yes
Baron, R. [4660], Madagascar K000243428 Yes
Baron, R. [4965], Madagascar K000243429 Yes
Humblot, L. [164], Madagascar K000243430 No
Hildebrandt, J.M. [1650], Madagascar K000243431 Unknown type material Yes
Story, R. [4811], Botswana K000489682 No
Long, D.G. [226], Botswana K000489688 No
Smith, P. [56], Botswana K000489686 No
Pope, G.V. [337], Botswana K000489683 No
Richards, M. [14805], Botswana K000489680 No
Erens, J. [328], Botswana K000489681 No
Smith, P. [56], Botswana K000489685 No
Smith, P. [56], Botswana K000489684 No
Mott, P.J. [1065], Botswana K000489687 No
Son, F. van [26949], Botswana K000489689 No
Troupin, G. [3048], Rwanda Ficus gnaphalocarpa 11089.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [2932], Zambia Ficus gnaphalocarpa 16904.000 No
Tanzania Ficus gnaphalocarpa 30372.000 No
Ash [1498], Ethiopia Ficus gnaphalocarpa 35613.000 No
Ash [961], Ethiopia Ficus gnaphalocarpa 37365.000 No
Sihvonen, J. [204], Burkina Faso Ficus gnaphalocarpa K000386629 No
Dubois, R. [111], Mali Ficus gnaphalocarpa K000386630 No
Hepper, F.N. [4192], Chad Ficus sycomorus subsp. gnaphalocarpa 43836.000 No
Kotschy [518], Ethiopia Ficus sycomorus subsp. gnaphalocarpa K000243281 Unknown type material Yes
Kotschy [518], Ethiopia Ficus sycomorus subsp. gnaphalocarpa K000243282 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Aweke in Meded. Landb. Wageningen 79-3: 72, fig. 18 (1979).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 321 (1961).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 263, fig. 92 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 30, t. 6B (1962).
  • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 95 (1916).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 355 (1949).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753).
  • Mildbr. & Burret in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 46: 191 (1911).
  • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 90 (1932).
  • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 449 (1982).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 260 (1952).

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