Forsskaolea tenacissima L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Spain, N. Africa to India.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Morphology General Habit
Annual or probably mostly perennial herb with branching annual stems from a woody rootstock, up to 40 cm tall
Morphology Branches
Branches hispid with spiny or hooked hairs and a softer tomentum in between
Morphology Leaves
Stipules lanceolate, up to c. 2 mm long; petiole not clearly defined, c. 0.3–1 cm long; blade obovate or rhomboid, 1–3 x 0.8–2 cm, hispid to glabrescent above, white tomentose below, cystoliths usually not visible, base cuneate, margin entire basally, serrate or crenate in the upper half, apex rounded or acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences two or more together in the leaf axils; involucral bracts (4–)5–6(–7), lanceolate, up to 0.5 x 0.15 cm, densely covered by long woolly hairs Male flowers up to 10, club-shaped in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers up to c. 5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene ovoid, brownish.
N2, 3; North Africa, S Spain, Arabian Peninsula, S Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India
Altitude range c. 300–500 m.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Yemen

Introduced into:


Forsskaolea tenacissima L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Taylor, R. [Cat. no. 4666], Oman K001039641 Yes

First published in Mant. Pl.: 72 (1767)

Accepted by

  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chrtek, J. (1974). Flora Iranica 105: 1-16. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Ghafoor, A. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 137: 1-25. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images