Genus:
Parietaria L.

Parietaria debilis G.Forst.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Old World. It is used as animal food and a medicine and for food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
espaletaria, espaletario, paletaria, palitaria, parietaria

[FTEA]

Urticaceae, I. Friis University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual, or perhaps sometimes short-lived perennial herb.
Morphology Stem
Stems prostrate, ascending or erect, occasionally scrambling (“ P. laxiflora ” and “ P. scandens ”), delicate or up to 2 m. high, sometimes rooting at the nodes, glabrous, pubescent or with short stiff hairs, occasionally with sessile or stalked reddish glands when young.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite; stipules lacking; petiole 0.8 – (in “ P. laxiflora ”) ± 5 cm. long, pubescent to glabrescent; lamina broadly ovate to circular or broader than long, 0.4–10 cm. long, 0.3–4 cm. wide, base often oblique, truncate to slightly cordate, margin entire, apex obtuse or rounded, rounded, obtuse or acuminate; lateral nerves 2–3 pairs, basal pair reaching 1/2–2/3 towards the apex; both surfaces glabrous or upper surface with short stiff hairs, cystoliths punctiform, and lower surface pilose or pubescent, with longer hairs along veins and margin, where long curved hairs may be intermixed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, ± cymosely branched, up to 1.5 cm. long (in “ P. laxiflora ”), with clusters of 1–few sessile or shortly pedicellate flowers, each cluster with male and female intermixed, and bracts with glandular hairs and long curved hairs.
sex Male
Male flowers subsessile; perianth 4-merous, up to 1.5 mm. in diameter.
sex Female
Female flowers shortly pedicellate; perianth 4-merous, ± 1.5 mm. long, with minute hairs on outer surface; ovary enclosed, with protruding penicillate stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Bisexual flowers with perianth bearing short hairs on outer surface, ± 1 mm. long. Female flowers shortly pedicellate; perianth 4-merous, ± 1.5 mm. long, with minute hairs on outer surface; ovary enclosed, with protruding penicillate stigma. Male flowers subsessile; perianth 4-merous, up to 1.5 mm. in diameter.
sex Hermaphrodite
Bisexual flowers with perianth bearing short hairs on outer surface, ± 1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene ±1.5 mm. long, smooth, shiny, dark brown, long enclosed in the persistent, accrescent perianth.
Figures
Fig. 14.
Habitat
In upland rain-forest, dry montane forest, bamboo forest, and evergreen bushland, in shade under rocks and along small streams in montane grassland and upland moor; 1700–4200 m.
Distribution
in the mountains of tropical Asia, Australia and New ZealandSouth America K3 K3/K5 K4 K6 T2 U2

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb, erect, sometimes subscandent, up to 1 m tall, or prostrate, finely pubescent on all parts, often with glands or glandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Petiole pubescent, up to 2.5 cm long; blade ovate, 0.3–3 x 0.2–2 cm, with scattered fine hairs above and longer soft hairs on the nerves below, base cuneate, truncate or subcordate, margin entire, apex rounded, mucronate, acute or acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences sometimes loosely paniculate but mostly contracted in axillary clusters, profusely provided with lanceolate bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male and bisexual flowers mixed together, subsessile, 4-merous, up to 1.5 mm in diam. Female flowers with 4 tepals which are fused for c. half their length, 1–1.5 mm long, provided with ± hooked hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene pale brownish, smooth, compressed, c. 1 mm long.
Distribution
N3 (only known from the surroundings of Galgala) on high mountains throughout Africa, also on mountains in other tropical regions and widespread in warmer temperate regions.
Ecology
Altitude range 1200–1300 m.

[FWTA]

Urticaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A slender more or less branched herb from a few inches to 1 ft. high.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1900–3750 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Norte de Santander, Quindío, Santander.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Palitaria, Parietaria

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1900 - 3750 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FWTA]

Urticaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A herb, often scandent and half-woody, with slender leafy branchlets
Ecology
In montane forest.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Altay, Amur, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, Chatham Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Djibouti, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf of Guinea Is., Inner Mongolia, Irkutsk, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Manchuria, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Rwanda, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Azores

Parietaria debilis G.Forst. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Oct 12, 2005 Wood, J.R.I. et al. [18080], Bolivia K000036523 No
Oct 12, 2005 Wood. J.R.I. et al. [19162], Bolivia K000036524 No
Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [598], Cameroon K000198598 No
May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9442], Cameroon K000051205 No
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3621], Cameroon K000936014 No
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3447], Cameroon K000936011 No
Dec 1, 2000 Kamundi, D. [675], Cameroon K000936013 No
Dec 1, 2000 Cable, S. [3136], Cameroon K000936007 No
Dec 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8691], Cameroon K000936012 No
Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [868], Cameroon K000936006 No
Jun 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [316], Cameroon K000936015 No
Jun 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [612], Cameroon K000936008 No
Nov 1, 1999 Puradyatmika, P. [10352], New Guinea 70311.000 No
Apr 1, 1997 Cheek, M. [8516], Cameroon K000936010 No
Mar 1, 1997 Cheek, M. [8509], Cameroon K000936009 No
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9335], Cameroon K000011597 No
Nov 1, 1992 Maitland, T.D. [841], Cameroon K000181431 No
Nov 1, 1992 Hepper, F.N. [2029], Cameroon K000181428 No
Jan 1, 1992 Morton, J.K. [6710], Cameroon K000181429 No
Jan 1, 1992 Dundas J. [20372], Cameroon K000181432 No
Jan 1, 1992 Breteler, F.J. [251], Cameroon K000181430 No
Jan 1, 1992 Boughey, A.S. [6764], Cameroon K000181427 No
Jan 1, 1992 Brenan, J.P.M. [9509], Cameroon K000181438 No
Jan 1, 1959 Morton, J.K. [794], Cameroon K000181426 No
Jan 1, 1954 Maitland, T.D. [990], Cameroon K000181433 No
Apr 1, 1905 Madeira K000242985 No
Apr 1, 1905 Madeira K000242986 No
Ash [1311], Ethiopia 35676.000 No
K000242984 No
K000242989 Yes
[illegible] [1], China K000741619 Yes
Breteler, F.J. [47], Cameroon K000181424 No
Hedberg, O. [93136], Cameroon K000087421 No
Pollard, B.J. [653], Cameroon K000198712 No
Maximowicz [s.n.], Manchuria K000741618 Yes
Bullock, T.L. [52], China K000741620 Yes

First published in Fl. Ins. Austr.: 73 (1786)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1937). Flora Turkmenii 2: 1-217. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1989). Flora of Australia 3: 1-219. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Montesinos Tubée, D.B. (2012). Lista anotada de nuevas adiciones para la flora andina de Moquegua, Perú Revista Peruana de Biologia 19: 307-316.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pinto, R. & Luebert, F. (2009). Datos sobre la flora vascular del desierto costero de Arica y Tarapaca, Chile, y sus relaciones fitogeograficas con el sur de Peru Gayana. Botánica 66: 28-49.
  • Schlotgauer, S.D. & Kryukova, M.V. (2012). New and rare plant species in Khabarovsk territory Turczaninowia 15(1): 51-54.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Not accepted by

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso. [Cited as Parietaria micrantha.]
  • Ghafoor, A. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 137: 1-25. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi. [Cited as Parietaria lusitanica.]

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 298.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1937). Flora Turkmenii 2: 1-217. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.
  • GBIF ( 2021-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1989). Flora of Australia 3: 1-219. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghafoor, A. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 137: 1-25. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Schlotgauer, S.D. & Kryukova, M.V. (2012). New and rare plant species in Khabarovsk territory Turczaninowia 15(1): 51-54.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 325 (1974).
  • G. Forster, Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr.: 73 (1786).
  • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 209 (1948).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 1: 622 (1958).
  • Letouzey in Fl. Cameroun 8: 209 (1968).
  • O. Hedberg, Afroalpine Vascular Plants p. 73, 268 (1957).
  • Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 6, 2: 298 (1917).
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 1:158, fig. 32/1A–D (1978).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0