Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 3. 2: 891 (1764)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is SE. U.S.A. to S. America, W. Tropical Africa to Angola. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as a medicine and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Alabama, Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau). Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola. Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental. Boissiera 55: 1-322.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador. Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
  • Rodrigues Furtado, M.N., de Souza Secco, R. & Sousa Rocha, A.E. (2012). Sinopse das espécies de Lamiales Bromhead ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Pará, Brasil. Hoehnea 39: 529-547.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2008 Makany [565], Congo K000479906 No
Jan 1, 1968 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6924], Cameroon K000029876 No
Medeiros, L. [s.n.], Brazil K001046363 Yes
Silva, B.R. [1073], Brazil K001046362 Yes
Aug 25, 1963 Pabst, G. [7385], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046323 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114036 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114038 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742], India Avicennia tomentosa K001114040 Yes
Duarte, A.P. [5017], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046327 Yes
Pabst, G. [5421], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046329 Yes
Duarte, A.P. [5017], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046324 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1742], Myanmar Avicennia tomentosa K001114042 Yes
Pereira, E. [431], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046322 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114041 Yes
Pabst, G. [5421], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046325 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742], India Avicennia tomentosa K001114037 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114039 Yes
Duarte, A.P. [5017], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046328 Yes
Pabst, L.F. [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046326 Yes
Jan 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14809], Cameroon Avicennia africana K000029874 No
Gossweiler, J. [s.n.], Angola Avicennia africana K001009781 Yes
Ward, C.J. [86], Angola Avicennia africana K001009783 Yes
Thompson, S.A. [1333], Cameroon Avicennia africana K000029875 No
Welwitsch [5726], Angola Avicennia africana K001009780 Yes
Ward, C.J. [72], Angola Avicennia africana K001009782 Yes
Welwitsch [5709], Angola Avicennia africana K001009778 Yes
Welwitsch [5641], Angola Avicennia africana K001009779 Yes
Ward, C.J. [89], Angola Avicennia africana K001009784 Yes
Gossweiler, J. [s.n.], Angola Avicennia africana K001009777 Yes
Oct 1, 1936 Broadway, W.E. [5817], Trinidad & Tobago Avicennia nitida K000573634 Yes
Trinidad & Tobago Avicennia nitida K000573636 Yes
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046359 Yes
Glaziou [11324], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046361 Yes
Drouet, F. [2442], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046357 Yes
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046358 Yes
Glaziou [9988], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046356 Yes
Trinidad & Tobago Avicennia nitida K000573635 Unknown type material Yes
Gardner [1101], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046353 Yes
Froes, R. [1818], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046354 Yes
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046360 Yes
Araújo, D.S.D. [825], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046352 Yes
Gardner, G. [s.n.] Avicennia nitida K001046355 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0