Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.
Avicennia marina

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree 1–9 m. tall or even attaining 15 m. when left in favourable conditions; bark brownish yellow-green, smooth.
Morphology Stem
Pneumatophores 10–25(–40) cm. long. Stems finely grey-tomentose.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades elliptic or ovate-elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 3–12 cm. long, 1.5–5 cm. wide, acute to acuminate or even obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, green or yellow-green and glabrous above, minutely silvery grey or whitish tomentose beneath, glaucous, sometimes blackening on drying; petiole 3–8(–14) mm. long, gradually passing into the lamina.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in small dense heads 0.7–1.2 cm. diameter, with 3 heads per terminal inflorescence but lateral branches originating from lower leaflets or leafy nodes; sometimes a pair of additional opposite flowers borne on central peduncle well below the head; bracts and bracteoles ovate or ± round, concave, adpressed to calyx, 2–4 mm. long, 1.5–3 mm. wide, acute, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate, elliptic or ± round, 3.5–4 mm. long, 2.5–3 mm. wide, obtuse, ± densely ciliate and tomentose outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, apricot or dark orange, turning black; tube 2–3 mm. long, glabrous; lobes ovate, 2.5–4 mm. long, 2–3 mm. wide, pubescent outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers sulphur-yellow turning black.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary yellow-green, narrowly conical, 2.5 mm. long, pubescent above, glabrous below; style 0.8 mm. long, glabrous, 2-fid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule subglobose, broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, usually not beaked when mature, 1.2–3 cm. long, 0.7–2.5 cm. wide, velvety scaly-tomentose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed usually single, compressed.
Figures
Fig. 21.
Habitat
Locally dominant in sandier parts and inland fringes of mangrove associations, sandy dunes, mud of tidal rivers and salty creeks, colonizes new mud banks; sea-level
Distribution
Egypt to South Africa (Transkei, Kentani), Madagascar, Seychelles, Aldabra, Comoro Is., Persian Gulf to Pakistan, S. India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Is., Malay Peninsula, Indochina, Philippines, N. Borneo, Sarawak, China (incl. Hainan), Taiwan, Japan and a variety in Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Solomon Is. (detailed Malesian distribution omitted as very confused). K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from “islands and shores of Red Sea (Al Luhaygah). *
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles 2–3 mm long, ovate to broadly ovate, concave, obtuse or rounded at the apex, ciliate, glabrous on the inner face, densely silvery-tomentose or sericeous on the outside, finally glabrescent, closely appressed to the calyx Bracts and bracteoles 2–3 mm long, ovate to broadly ovate, concave, obtuse or rounded at the apex, ciliate, glabrous on the inner face, densely silvery-tomentose or sericeous on the outside, finally glabrescent, closely appressed to the calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers fragrant Flowers fragrant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx green; lobes 2–4 mm long, ovate or broadly ovate to elliptic, rounded at the apex, densely tomentellous outside, fimbriate-ciliate on the margins, persistent Calyx green; lobes 2–4 mm long, ovate or broadly ovate to elliptic, rounded at the apex, densely tomentellous outside, fimbriate-ciliate on the margins, persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white at first, turning yellow or orange to dark orange or reddish-orange, becoming blackish when dry, rigid, caducous; tube 1–2 mm long, glabrous; lobes 3–4 mm long, ovate, densely tomentellous or sericeous outside, glabrous inside Corolla white at first, turning yellow or orange to dark orange or reddish-orange, becoming blackish when dry, rigid, caducous; tube 1–2 mm long, glabrous; lobes 3–4 mm long, ovate, densely tomentellous or sericeous outside, glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments erect; anthers subequalling the filaments, suborbicular, sulphur-yellow, turning black Filaments erect; anthers subequalling the filaments, suborbicular, sulphur-yellow, turning black.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 1.2–3 × 0.7–2 cm, subglobose, broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, somewhat asymmetric and abruptly tapering into a short narrow apical beak at least when young, yellowish or pale to greyish-green densely powdery-puberulent, the calyx and involucre persisting unchanged Capsule 1.2–3 × 0.7–2 cm, subglobose, broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, somewhat asymmetric and abruptly tapering into a short narrow apical beak at least when young, yellowish or pale to greyish-green densely powdery-puberulent, the calyx and involucre persisting unchanged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed large, compressed, germinating within the fruit while still on the tree Seed large, compressed, germinating within the fruit while still on the tree.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Cotyledons
Cotyledons reniform, light green. Cotyledons reniform, light green.
Ecology
Intertidal zone mudflats and sandy shores, and the estuaries and tidal river banks (brackish water)
Note
It is a common and often dominant constituent of mangrove swamps (usually the inland fringes of mangrove associations), and is also a pioneer of new mud banks; sea level.   The bark is rich tannin and yields a brown dye The wood is durable and is used in boat building and for the ribs of dhows in East Africa.
Distribution
Mozambique District code: MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Widely distributed along the shores of the western Indian Ocean (east Africa from Egypt to the Cape including the Seychelles, the Comoros, the Mozambique Channel Islands, Madagascar and the Mascareignes); also along the coasts of the Red Sea, Persian Gulf
Morphology General Habit
Usually a small evergreen tree 3–4 m tall, sometimes to 10(12) m tall, with a much-branched rounded crown and an extensive widely spreading horizontal root system, less often a shrub; roots, particularly in muddy places, giving rise to numerous erect pencil-like pneumatophores, 10–38 cm tall. Usually a small evergreen tree 3–4 m tall, sometimes to 10(12) m tall, with a much-branched rounded crown and an extensive widely spreading horizontal root system, less often a shrub; roots, particularly muddy places, giving rise to numerous erect pencil-like pneumatophores, 10–38 cm tall
Morphology Trunk
Trunk ± stout, up to c. 25 cm in diameter, sometimes with aerial ‘breathing’ roots (not reaching the ground) on the lower portion; bark smooth and somewhat powdery, whitish or yellow-green; branchlets decussate, slender, subterete or quadrangular, with a densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent whitish or greyish thin outer bark, nodes swollen. Trunk ± stout, up to c. 25 cm diameter, sometimes with aerial ‘breathing’ roots (not reaching the ground) on the lower portion; bark smooth and somewhat powdery, whitish or yellow-green; branchlets decussate, slender, subterete or quadrangular, with a densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent whitish or greyish thin outer bark, nodes swollen
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3.5–12 × 1.3–5 cm, ovate or lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or subacute at the apex, entire with margins slightly revolute, cuneate at the base or ± tapering into the petiole, glabrous or ± obscurely powdery on upper surface, densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent or felted-tomentellous on lower surface, coriaceous, usually light green on both surfaces or discolorous and silvery-greyish or greenish-yellow beneath, becoming dark olive-green to blackish above and sordid grey to yellowish beneath on drying; midrib slender and ± prominent on both surfaces, reticulation slightly raised above and obscured beneath; secondary nerves 8–15 on each side of midrib; petiole 3–14 mm long, flattened above, densely powdery-puberulent or tomentellous, rarely glabrescent. Leaves 3.5–12 × 1.3–5 cm, ovate or lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or subacute at the apex, entire with margins slightly revolute, cuneate at the base or ± tapering into the petiole, glabrous or ± obscurely powdery on upper surface, densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent or felted-tomentellous on lower surface, coriaceous, usually light green on both surfaces or discolorous and silvery-greyish or greenish-yellow beneath, becoming dark olive-green to blackish above and sordid grey to yellowish beneath on drying; midrib slender and ± prominent on both surfaces, reticulation slightly raised above and obscured beneath; secondary nerves 8–15 on each side of midrib; petiole 3–14 mm long, flattened above, densely powdery-puberulent or tomentellous, rarely glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes usually solitary in leaf axils towards the end of the branchlets, and usually with 3 at the apex of the branchlets, few- to many-flowered, capitate or subcapitate; the heads 7–15 mm in diameter; peduncles 0.6–4 cm long, quadrangular, sulcate when dry, densely thinly powdery-puberulent. Cymes usually solitary leaf axils towards the end of the branchlets, and usually with 3 at the apex of the branchlets, few- to many-flowered, capitate or subcapitate; the heads 7–15 mm diameter; peduncles 0.6–4 cm long, quadrangular, sulcate when dry, densely thinly powdery-puberulent

Native to:

Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen

Introduced into:

California

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Milne-Redhead, E. [7593], Tanzania 24495.000
Renvoize, S.A. [762], Seychelles 7386.000
Curtis, C. [3533], Malaysia K000885463
Bhide, R.K. [s.n.], India K000885470
s.coll. [6070], Peninsular Malaysia K000885464
Curtis, C. [3533], Malaysia K000885462

First published in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 71: 435 (1907)

Accepted by

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Debnath, H.S. (2004). Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar islands: taxonomy and ecology: 1-133. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Miller, A.G. & M. Morris in Miller, A.G. & M. Morris (2004). Ethnofl. Soqotra Archipel. Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago: 516-524. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 629 (1949).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees & Shrubs: 581, fig. 106 (1961).
  • Econ. Bot. 27 , 2: 189 (1973).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 342 (1895).
  • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb., II] 12 : 177 (1954).
  • F.C. 5 , 1: 225–226 (1910).
  • F.T.A. 5 : 332 (1900).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 144, fig. 21 (1992).
  • F.W. Andrews, Fl. Pl. Anglo-Egypt. Sudan 3 : 193 (1956).
  • Fl. Madag., Avicenniaceae: 2, fig. 1 (1956)
  • Gomes e Sousa, Dendrol. Moçamb.: 660, t. 214 (1967).
  • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 300 (1972).
  • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa, ed. 2: 816 (1988).
  • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 975 (2002).  TAB. 1 .
  • Macnae & Kalk, Nat. Hist. Inhaca Isl., Moçamb.: 13, fig. 5d, plate III(6) (1958).
  • Palmer & Pitman, Trees Southern Africa 3 : 1971, photo facing p. 1956, photo p. 1972 & 1974, fig. p. 1975 (1973).
  • Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6 , part 1: 266 (1861).
  • Phytologia 7 , 4: 210 (1960).
  • sensu Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Africa: 94, 125 et 139, t. 83 (1909), non L. (1753).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Debnath, H.S. (2004). Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar islands: taxonomy and ecology: 1-133. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Collenette, Fl. Saudi Arabia: 494 (1985).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 803 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 581, fig. 106 (1961).
  • Fosberg & Renvoize, Fl. Aldabra: 219, fig. 35/1 (1980).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 629 (1949).
  • Jafri, Fl. W. Pakistan 49, Avicenniac.: 2, fig. 1 (1973).
  • Ju-Ying Hsiao in Fl. Taiwan 4: 411, t. 1055 (1978).
  • Lam & Bakh. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., sér. 3, 3: 102 (1921), pro parte.
  • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 127 (1983) (very full synonymy and description etc.).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 137 (1949).
  • Täckholm, Students’ Fl. Egypt: 155 (1956).
  • Vierh. in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Math.-Nat. 71: 435 (1907).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/