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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical & S. Africa.
Lantana rugosa

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from South Africa (Cape Prov.).
Morphology General
A much branched shrub up to 2 m tall, or sometimes a woody perennial 45–90 cm tall
Ecology
Often in moist soil in riverine vegetation and on dam and dambo margins; also in mopane and miombo woodlands, grassland, in alluvial soils, Kalahari Sands and on rocky outcrops; 100–1550 m.
Note
Some specimens with very small leaves and small spikes may be confused with L. moldenkei .  However, this species is distinguished from L. rugosa by its relatively broader less rigid leaves, obtuse at the apex, with longer petioles, and by the smaller less acuminate bracts. Well grown plants, from sheltered localities in moist soil, usually have larger more membranous leaves with a looser indumentum, and a nervation not markedly impressed above nor so prominent beneath.  Such specimens, from the Flora Zambesiaca area, were sometimes incorrectly determined in herbaria as L. viburnoides (Forssk.) Vahl, which is a distinct species described from the Arabian Peninsula and only represented in Africa by the subsp. richardii R. Fern. (cf. R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 196–200, t. 17 & 18 (1989). Some authors have treated L. kisi A. Rich. as a synonym of L. rugosa .   However, I consider L. kisi to be a separate species, mainly Ethiopian in distribution and not occurring in southern Africa (R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 139–141 (1989)).  In my opinion L. rugosa occurs mostly south of the Zambezi River. The branchlet and peduncle indumentum, usually strigose (appressed, antrorse), can sometimes consist of patent or spreading bristle-like hairs.  However, intermediate forms occur, with subappressed or subspreading hairs, and it is considered therefore that indumentum type is not taxonomically significant, and plants with patent hairs on branches and peduncles are not recognized as separate from L. rugosa .  Similar variations in indumentum are seen in Lippia caffra Sond., Lantana angolensis , L. rhodesiensis and L. trifolia.
Distribution
District code: BOT N, BOT SE, BOT SW, BOT N, BOT W, ZIM W, ZIM E, ZIM S, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Zimbabwe Mozambique Botswana Zambia Also in South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal, Free State, Lesotho and Cape), Swaziland, Namibia and Angola.
Morphology General Habit
A much branched shrub up to 2 m tall, or sometimes a woody perennial 45–90 cm tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems and branches 4-angled, ± softly strigose and more densely so toward the apices, the indumentum with hairs ± tubercle-based and usually curving appressed antrorse, sometimes somewhat spreading, with sessile glands intermixed. Stems and branches 4-angled, ± softly strigose and more densely so toward the apices, the indumentum with hairs ± tubercle-based and usually curving appressed antrorse, sometimes somewhat spreading, with sessile glands intermixed
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, rarely 3-whorled, petiolate, mostly shorter than the internodes; 0.7–5.5(7.5) × 0.5–4 cm, ovate, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, sometimes broadly ovate, acute, rounded at the base and cuneate into the petiole, closely crenate or crenulate on the margins with 9–15(18–21) shallow teeth on each side, strigose with whitish tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface, becoming scabrid with the tubercle-bases persisting in older leaves, densely shortly whitish hispid beneath and with minute sessile reddish glands on the lower surface, rugose with impressed venation above, ± strongly raised-reticulate beneath; petiole up to 8 mm long. Leaves opposite, rarely 3-whorled, petiolate, mostly shorter than the internodes; 0.7–5.5(7.5) × 0.5–4 cm, ovate, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, sometimes broadly ovate, acute, rounded at the base and cuneate into the petiole, closely crenate or crenulate on the margins with 9–15(18–21) shallow teeth on each side, strigose with whitish tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface, becoming scabrid with the tubercle-bases persisting in older leaves, densely shortly whitish hispid beneath and with minute sessile reddish glands on the lower surface, rugose with impressed venation above, ± strongly raised-reticulate beneath; petiole up to 8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles solitary in leaf axils, ascending-erect to ± spreading, 1.5–6 cm long at anthesis, 7(10) cm long and becoming rigid in fruit, mostly more than half as long as the subtending leaf or up to c. 3 cm longer than it, slender; indumentum similar to that on the branchlets. Peduncles solitary in leaf axils, ascending-erect to ± spreading, 1.5–6 cm long at anthesis, 7(10) cm long and becoming rigid in fruit, mostly more than half as long as the subtending leaf or up to c. 3 cm longer than it, slender; indumentum similar to that on the branchlets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowering spikes up to 20 × 20 mm, subspherical or ovoid, with the lower bracts at first equalling the young spikes in length, spikes elongating to 3 cm in fruit becoming laxly conical or oblong-cylindric; lower bracts of flowering spikes up to 7.5 × 4.2 mm, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, attenuate-cuspidate into a somewhat subulate apex, ± strongly contracted at the base, with margins revolute in the upper half, green, appressed pilose on both surfaces but more densely so and with sessile reddish glands on the outer surface, accrescent and up to 8–9 × c. 5 mm, usually not more than half as long as the spike, with nerves ± prominent in fruiting spikes; upper bracts smaller, ± tapering to the apex and less contracted at the base; spike-axes up to 4 cm long, with scattered scars. Flowering spikes up to 20 × 20 mm, subspherical or ovoid, with the lower bracts at first equalling the young spikes in length, spikes elongating to 3 cm in fruit becoming laxly conical or oblong-cylindric; lower bracts of flowering spikes up to 7.5 × 4.2 mm, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, attenuate-cuspidate into a somewhat subulate apex, ± strongly contracted at the base, with margins revolute in the upper half, green, appressed pilose on both surfaces but more densely so and with sessile reddish glands on the outer surface, accrescent and up to 8–9 × c. 5 mm, usually not more than half as long as the spike, with nerves ± prominent in fruiting spikes; upper bracts smaller, ± tapering to the apex and less contracted at the base; spike-axes up to 4 cm long, with scattered scars
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± as long as the corolla tube, appressed-pilose, ciliate on the margins, thinly membranous. Calyx ± as long as the corolla tube, appressed-pilose, ciliate on the margins, thinly membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corollas ± exceeding the bracts, pale rose, lilac to red-purple or violet with yellow throat, rarely white; tube (3)3.75–4 mm long, ± swollen about the middle, shortly puberulous; lower lip c. 3.5 mm broad, 3-lobed, the lobes rounded, the median one c. 2 × 1.5 mm, larger than the lateral ones. Corollas ± exceeding the bracts, pale rose, lilac to red-purple or violet with yellow throat, rarely white; tube (3)3.75–4 mm long, ± swollen about the middle, shortly puberulous; lower lip c. 3.5 mm broad, 3-lobed, the lobes rounded, the median one c. 2 × 1.5 mm, larger than the lateral ones
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted ± at the middle of corolla tube. Stamens inserted ± at the middle of corolla tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes 2.5–3.5 mm long, purple or wine-coloured on ripening. Drupes 2.5–3.5 mm long, purple or wine-coloured on ripening.

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Lantana rugosa Thunb. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
s.coll. [20], Angola K001009835
Hornby, R.M. [574A], Tanzania Lippia lupuliformis 18104.000

First published in Prodr. Pl. Cap.: 98 (1800)

Accepted by

  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 605 (1847).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 59 : 256 (1986).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 162, t. 12 (1989).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 164 (1989) in adnot.
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 337 (1895) pro min. parte.
  • F.C. 5 , 1: 190 (1901) pro max. parte.
  • F.T.A. 5 : 277 (1900), as “ salvifolia ” pro parte, quoad specimen Curror 20.
  • Hutchinson, Botanist South. Africa: 301 (1946), as “ salvifolia ”.
  • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 299 (1972).
  • Macnae & Kalk, Nat. Hist. Inhaca Isl., Moçamb.: 152 (1958).
  • Martineau, Rhodesia Wild Fl.: 65 (1953), as “ salvifolia ”.
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 122: 7 (1967).
  • Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4 : 64 (1845).

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Plants and People Africa
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