Lantana viburnoides (Forssk.) Vahl

First published in Symb. Bot. 1: 45 (1790)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Africa, S. Arabian Peninsula. It is a subshrub or shrub and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or subshrub 0.3–2.5 m. tall, occasionally scrambling; branches with adpressed short upwardly directed hairs, at length ± glabrous and roughened with distinctly raised petiole-bases.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves almost always opposite, but occasionally in whorls of 3, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, 1.5–2.5(–12) cm. long, 0.7–4(–7) cm. wide, acute to ± obtuse at the apex, rounded then attenuate-cuneate into the petiole at the base, regularly coarsely to finely somewhat rounded crenate, not to distinctly discolorous, pubescent with ± tubercle-based hairs above and somewhat scabrid, pubescent to velvety or tomentose beneath; petiole up to 1.5 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncles solitary, rarely paired, (1.5–)2.5–13.5 cm. long, shorter than to usually longer than the subtending leaf, shortly pubescent; heads 0.7–1.5 cm. long, 1.1–2.5 cm. wide, mostly wider than long but elongating in fruit to 1.5–3 cm. or occasionally much longer, to 5 cm. in some forms; lower bracts rounded to broadly ovate or rarely oblong-ovate, 0.6–1.4(–1.5) cm. long, (3–)5–9 mm. wide, ± acuminate to less often long-acuminate or obtuse, equalling or exceeding the upper corollas at flowering but shorter than fruiting spikes, pubescent and glandular to densely velvety tomentose, sometimes strongly ribbed in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2 mm. long, undulate, thinly pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla predominantly white or sometimes pink; tube 5.5 mm. long; limb ± 5 mm. wide; lower lip 3.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes lilac-purple, rhomboid-subglobose, 2.5–3.5 mm. long.
[FTEA]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Aromatic straggling subshrub or woody herb to about 3 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncles long, usually exceeding the leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers relatively large, white.
[FWTA]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from Yemen.
[FZ]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or subshrub, 0.5–2.5 m tall; young stems shortly appressed pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite; blades ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 0.7–5(–12) x 0.4–3(–7) cm, acute to ± obtuse at the apex, rounded-cuneate at the base, crenate, ± scabrid above, pubescent to tomentose beneath; petiole up to 10(–15) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in axillary heads 0.7–1.5 x 0.8–2.5 cm, elongating in fruit up to 3 cm or more long; peduncle (0.5–)1.5–13.5 cm long; lower bracts rounded to ovate, 6–15 x 3–9 mm, ± acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink; tube c. 5.5 mm long, puberulous outside; limb c. 3–5 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes lilac-purple, 2.5–3.5 mm long.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3
Ecology
Altitude range 40–1680 m.
Vernacular
Geed xamar, reexaan, xitoole (Somali).
Note
A variable taxon variously subdivided by Fernandes (1989) and Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. (1992). The Somali material is nearest var. viburnoides in Verdcourt´s classification, although the leaves are mostly relatively small. Records of L. kisi A. Rich., L. petitiana A. Rich., L. rugosa Thunb. and L. trifolia L. from Somalia in Cuf. Enum.: 788–790 (1962) are probably all based on material of L. viburnoides.
[FSOM]

Uses

Use
Leaves used to flavour tea and ghee.
[FSOM]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images