Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.
Stachytarpheta indica

[FWTA]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A well-branched herb 2-3 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Very long narrow spikes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers deep blue with white centre
Note
A weed.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Annual sometimes somewhat subsucculent herb 9–60(–120) cm. tall, with glabrous unbranched or branched stems.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblanceolate to narrowly oblong in outline, 2–9(–13) cm. long, 0.3–3.5(–6) cm. wide, subacute at the apex, attenuate at the base into a 1 cm. long petiole with a few hairs at base and on junction across stems, ± remotely coarsely serrate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes 4–35 cm. long; bracts elliptic to lanceolate, 5–5.5 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide, sometimes obscurely ridged, acuminate, often ± spreading in older inflorescences.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–4.5 mm. long, the apex appearing bifid from outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla deep to light blue, mauve or lavender, the tube and throat often white; tube 5 mm. long; limb 7.5 mm. wide, the lobes rounded, 2.5–3 mm. long and wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style 5 mm. long, just exserted; stigma green.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit pale brown turning black, oblong, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, reticulately ridged towards apex, longitudinally ribbed beneath, slightly beaked at apex.
Habitat
Bare earth, grassland, weed in heavy cultivated soils, also in rice-fields; 10–1050 m.
Distribution
widespread in tropical Africa and in tropical America K1 T6 T8 U1

[FWTA]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A herb about 1 ft. (sometimes up to 4 ft.) high, simple or slightly branched, often rather succulent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pale blue with or without a white centre
Ecology
In moist places.

[KBu]

Sandy Atkins. (2005). The Genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil. Kew Bulletin, 60(2), 161-272. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4110935

Conservation
Least concern. A fairly common species with a wide distribution around tropical America.
Distribution
Mexico, Caribbean Islands, Central America, C & N South America and West Africa. In Brazil: Alagoas, Amapá, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro
Ecology
In damp ground and marshy places, usually around river banks at sea level and lower altitudes.
Morphology General Habit
Herb or small shrub to 80 cm, unbranched or branching just below inflorescence
Morphology Leaves
Leaves chartaceous, narrow, linear-elliptic, 4 - 9 x 0.5 - 2 cm; apex acute; base attenuate; margin coarsely serrate, with serrations remote; upper surface glabrous with sessile glands, lower surface glabrous with scattered uniseriate hairs along nerves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens almost sessile, inserted 3/4 way up tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx straight, 6 mm long, almost glabrous, appearing 2-toothed with sinus adaxially
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue, hypocrateriform, tube straight, narrow, c. 10 mm long, glabrous; lobes c. 2 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary oblong, c. 1 mm long; style 10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit dark brown to black, reticulate, c. 4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence curving, (7 -) 14 - 21 cm long by 4 - 6 mm wide, (old inflorescences often still present showing deep excavation scars from fallen flowers), rachis glabrous; bracts woody, narrowly ovate, 3 - 8 mm long, glabrous
Morphology Stem
Stem rounded to 4-sided, hollow, glabrous with sparse hairs, and a ring of hairs at each node
Note
Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill.) Vahl seems to be the earliest name for this taxon. First described by Miller (1768) as Verbena angustifolia "with naked, fleshy spikes and narrow spear-shaped leaves with worn-out sawed edges". This was transferred to Stachytarpheta by Vahl (1804). He included in the synonymy Verbena indica of Jacquin (1771), but not Verbena indica of Linnaeus (1759, 1762). Fernandes (1984) presented good reasons for choosing LINN 35-1 as the type for Stachytarpheta indica (it has the determination of Linnaeus himself on the sheet.) However, LINN 35-1 does not match Linnaeus' own description. The specimen is definitely the taxon found in South America, with narrow leaves with teeth remote and serrate, (not with oblique, obtuse teeth.) There are two distinct taxa involved. The first is described here; the second, which seems to occur only in Africa, has oblong to ovate leaves, with crenate margin with obtuse teeth. Both species appear to be herbaceous annuals, with hollow stems, a deeply excavated rachis, inhabiting riversides and seasonally flooded pasture. Stachytarpheta angustifolia is a common plant across Brazil and is also found in West Africa. Stachytarpheta indica (sensu Linnaeus) is also common in West Africa and East Africa, but I have found no corresponding specimens in Brazil. It is possible that S. indica was a very early introduction of S. angustifolia (they share the same calyx morphology), from South America, and has developed a different morphology. It may also be a hybrid between S. angustifolia and S. jamaicensis. There is a sericeous form which Moldenke called Stachytarpheta angustissima, but only one collection of this form exists.
Type
Mexico, La Vera Cruz, Houston (BM).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 120 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

Native to:

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Bangladesh, Burkina, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Phoenix Is., Sudan, Togo, Zaïre

Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9533], Cameroon K000107551
Meikle, R.D. [612], Nigeria 16937.000
Deighton, F.C. [4173], Sierra Leone 18954.000
Apr 15, 2002 Lewis, G.P. [CFCR7477], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065303
Apr 15, 2002 Hatschbach, G. [63127], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065307
Apr 15, 2002 Herb. Mus. Vien [170], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065311
Apr 15, 2002 Herb. Mus. Vindob. [170], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065301
Apr 15, 2002 Burchell [9071], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065305
Apr 15, 2002 Trail, J.W.H. [666], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065309
Apr 15, 2002 Gardner [3934], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065302
Apr 15, 2002 Murca Pires, J. [52359], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065304
Apr 15, 2002 Glaziou, A.F.M. [13062], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065306
Apr 15, 2002 Spruce, R. [1156], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065308
Apr 15, 2002 Burchell [9071], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065310
Apr 15, 2002 Spruce, R., Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065312
Apr 15, 2002 Hatschbach, G. [56659], Bahia Stachytarpheta elatior K000013802
Apr 15, 2002 Drouet, F. [2218], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000013799
Apr 15, 2002 de Moura, O.T. [639], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000013800
Apr 15, 2002 Melo, E. [1184], Bahia Stachytarpheta elatior K000013804
Apr 15, 2002 Andrade, K. [210], Pernambuco Stachytarpheta elatior K000013805
Apr 15, 2002 Preston, T.A., Pernambuco Stachytarpheta elatior K000013806
Apr 15, 2002 Gardner, Alagoas Stachytarpheta elatior K000013807
Sep 14, 2001 Lima, A. [53-1472], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065244
Sep 14, 2001 Gardner [3934], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000065243
Sep 14, 2001 Gardner [1106], Pernambuco Stachytarpheta elatior K000013736
May 19, 2000 Lewis, G.P. [CFCR 7477], Bahia Stachytarpheta elatior K000014353
May 19, 2000 dos Santos, E.B. [12], Bahia Stachytarpheta elatior K000014354
Jan 1, 1992 Agra, M.F. [1213], Brazil Stachytarpheta elatior K000013803
Hatschbach, G. [56974], Bahia Stachytarpheta elatior K000013801
Jan 1, 2004 Damasceno, G.A. [2956], Brazil Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000944071
Jan 1, 1987 Ule, E. [7866], Brazil Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000944069
Jan 1, 1987 Jenman [5542], Guyana Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000470978 Unknown type material
Meikle, R.D. [702], Nigeria Stachytarpheta angustifolia 11720.000
Meikle, R.D. [835], Nigeria Stachytarpheta angustifolia 18105.000
Meikle, R.D. [1245], Nigeria Stachytarpheta angustifolia 18106.000
Deighton, F.C. [4172], Sierra Leone Stachytarpheta angustifolia 22050.000
Chancellor, R.J. [289], Uganda Stachytarpheta angustifolia 24173.000
Ule, E. [5411], Brazil Stachytarpheta angustifolia K000944070
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2656], India Verbena indica K001116749
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2656], India Verbena indica K001116748

First published in Enum. Pl. Obs. 1: 206 (1804)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Atkins, S. (2005). The genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Kew Bulletin 60: 161-272.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & Grayum, M.H. (2011). Lectotypification and reinstatement of Stachytarpheta friedrichsthalii (Verbenaceae), with notes on the Lectotypification of S. indica Novon 21: 437-439.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Brenan in Kew Bull. 5: 225 (1950)
  • Chev. Bot. 503
  • Danser in Ann. Jard. Bot. Bultenz. 40: 5 (1929)
  • Enum. Pl. 1: 206 (1805)
  • F.T.A. 5: 284, mostly

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Atkins, S. (2005). The genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Kew Bulletin 60: 161-272.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Moldenke, Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 265 (1983).
  • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57: 88, 95 (1984);.
  • Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 206 (1804).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/