Genus:
Tectona L.f.

Tectona grandis L.f.

Tectona grandis (teak) is a tall tree from southeast Asia and is widely cultivated for its durable wood. It is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), which is perhaps better known for its aromatic members including culinary herbs such as basil, oregano and rosemary.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Ecology
Alt. 80 - 1200 m.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from India.
Morphology General
A large tree up to 50 m tall, densely cineraceous- or ochraceous-furfuraceous-tomentose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 11–95 × 6–50 cm, broadly elliptic, acute or shortly acuminate at the apex, acute or attenuate and prolonged into the winged petiole at the base or sessile and clasping, entire or repand denticulate at the margin, chartaceous, dark green, very rough or minutely bullate above, light yellow-green and densely stellate-tomentose beneath (often with a red coloration on rubbing), glabrescent, drooping; petiole short, stout, winged, densely ochraceous-furfuraceous, or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal and in the axils of the uppermost leaves, massive, usually c. 40 × 40 cm, the terminal ones often larger, densely cineraceous- or ochraceous-furfuraceous; cymes opposite, divaricate, distant, branched, many-flowered; peduncles often elongate; pedicels 1–4 mm long; bracts up to 15 × 4 mm, linear-lanceolate, attenuate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–4.5 × 3–3.5 mm, 5–7-dentate or-lobed, with teeth 1.5–2.5 mm long and ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse, often reflexed, yellow-green, densely furfuraceous-tomentellous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or with the lobes rose-coloured; tube 1.5–3 mm long and c. 1.5 mm wide; limb 5–7-partite, the segments 2.5–3 mm, obovate-elliptic, rounded at the top, erect or reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2.5–4 mm long, ampliate and flattened below, glabrous; anthers ovate or oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1.2–2 mm long, ovate or conical, pubescent; style 3.6–5.2 mm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 1.2–2 cm in diameter, subglobose or tetragonal, umbilicate and 4-lobed at the top, densely tomentose with hairs irregularly branched, light brown or ochraceous, enclosed in the inflated calyx; fruiting calyx  up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bladder-like, light brown and brittle on drying, irregularly plaited and crumpled.
Ecology
In Mozambique it is cultivated on sandy, reddish soil.
Note
Information on teak has been summarized by Krishna Murthy (Bibliography on teak, Dehra Dun, 1981). In FHO there is a sheet with three seedlings, obtained from seeds sown 29.iii.1958, at a nursery in Samfya (Zambia, N:).  However, F. White does not refer to this species as being cultivated in Zambia in the Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia.
Distribution
Mozambique Native to India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Java, it is cultivated in many tropical countries of Asia and Africa for its valuable wood District code: MOZ MS, MOZ M.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
It is a large tree at maturity, up to 50 m..
Morphology Leaves
Large elliptic leaves 10–100 cm. long, 5–50 cm. wide, mostly about 30 × 25 cm., stellate-tomentose beneath and often with red coloration on rubbing.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences massive, ± 40 cm. long, 35 cm. wide with stellate-tomentose axes and small white flowers, the corolla-tube ± 1.5–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, ± 1.5 cm. long and wide, enclosed in the inflated bladdery calyx 2.5 cm. long and wide.
Note
Information on teak has been summarised by Krishna Murthy (Bibliography on teak, Dehra Dun, 1981) and Moldenke gives much information (Phytologia 1:154–164 (1935) & 5:112–120 (1954)).

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Tectona grandis (teak) is a tall tree from southeast Asia and is widely cultivated for its durable wood, but has also been used for traditional medicine in southeast Asia. It is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), which is perhaps better known for its aromatic members including culinary herbs such as basil, oregano and rosemary.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Tectona grandis has a natural distribution from India to Vietnam and Thailand. It is also found in cultivation throughout the tropics.

Description

Teak trees can grow up to 40 m high. The bark is scaly and the leaves are opposite one another. The leaves are 6 - 75 cm long, 8 - 45 cm wide, and hairless on the upper surface when mature, with many star-shaped hairs below.

The calyxes form a balloon-like shape enveloping the fruit. The corolla is regular, and white to cream-coloured. The fruit is pale yellow, of 1.2 to 2 cm diameter, and covered with star-shaped hairs.

Threats and conservation

Although the species itself is common, the unique teak forests of India, Burma and Thailand are under threat from over-exploitation.

Uses

Tectona grandis is the source of a high quality general purpose hardwood known as teak. The timber is used for ship decking, flooring, furniture and construction. It is particularly recommended for construction in seaside environments (such as bridges and docks) because it is resistant to shipworm, a wood-boring sea mollusc ( Teredo spp., Teredinidae). Quinones in the sawdust inhibit the growth of several species of the fungi that cause wood rot.

Leaves of Tectona grandis Teak is widely cultivated in the tropics; the main producers are Burma, India, Thailand and Indonesia. Like all forests, plantations of teak can act as carbon stores; in Panama, for example, teak plantations sequester carbon dioxide at a rate of 191.1 mg per hectare during a twenty-year rotation. Soil analyses in Costa Rica indicate that teak plantations may improve the soil quality of lands previously under pasture. In Tanzania, wildlife forage is provided by young teak plantations where grass and herbs grow in the understorey.

Teak has traditionally been used in southeast Asia for medicine, commonly for its astringent and diuretic properties and against swelling. Its traditional use for diabetes has been supported by laboratory tests in which extracts of the bark have been shown to lower insulin resistance in mice. The wood has also been said to relieve skin irritations caused by handling cashew nuts ( Anacardium occidentale , Anacardiaceae) and marking nuts ( Semecarpus anacardium , Anacardiaceae).

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:  One

Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox - the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB

Composition values: Oil content 34%

Cultivation

Tectona grandis grows best in a warm, tropical climate with a temperature above 22 ºC. Teak prefers well-drained, fertile soils and is a strong light demander.

Trees are 96 to 100% self-incompatible. The species is hermaphroditic and pollinated by insects, especially bees. Propagation by seed involves pre-treatment to break the dormancy, involving wetting and drying the seed every 12 hours, over a period of two weeks. When seeds are sown in a mix of sand and coir, at 22 to 25ºC, germination will take place within two to four weeks. The germination rate is low, and teak seedlings need shading.

Vegetative propagation can be achieved by grafting and budding. Tissue cultures have also been developed for the propagation of teak.

Distribution
India, Thailand, Vietnam
Ecology
This species naturally occurs in deciduous forests, but is planted commonly along roadsides and in large plantations throughout the tropics.
Conservation
IUCN status of Least Concern (LC).
Hazards

None known.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 80–1200 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Córdoba, Magdalena, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Tree.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 1200 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
teca, teco

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Wood
Entire plant - Used for construction (Cadena-González 2010).

[KSP]
Use
Building material, medicinal.

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Belize, Benin, Cabinda, Caroline Is., Comoros, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Panamá, Philippines, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

English
Teak
Spanish
Teca.

Tectona grandis L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1939 Netherlands Indies Forestry Service [bb25521], Indonesia K000932050
Jan 1, 1939 Netherlands Indies Forestry Service [bb25521], Indonesia K000932051
May 13, 1923 Bünnemeijer, H.A.B. [10702], Indonesia K000932038
Jan 1, 1923 Thomson, G. [46a], India K000249764
Jan 1, 1923 Thomson, G. [46a], India K000249765
Styles, B.T. [61], Uganda 25694.023
Thorel, M. le [1279], Vietnam K000897978
Meynant [s.n.], Vietnam K000897979
Kerr, A.F.G. [1297], Thailand K000897982
Kostermans, A. [737], Thailand K000897984
Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000932042
Jugah ak. Tagi [39941], Malaysia K000932045
Abu Bakar, F.R. [A277], Malaysia K000932048
Cuadra, A. [A272], Malaysia K000932052
Gibot, A. [40932], Malaysia K000932053
Pray, F.L. [15407], Philippines K000932066
Romero, E.M. [29078], Philippines K000932062
s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111869
Keith, H.G. [A1530], Malaysia K000932032
Abu Bakar, F.R. [A277], Malaysia K000932047
Koorders, S.H. [29917], Indonesia K000932044
Rahman [6751], Malaysia K000932054
s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111868
Ambri [900], Indonesia K000932035
Barbon [1894], Philippines K000932065
Kochummen, K.M. [26233], Malaysia K000897973
Thorel, M. le [1279], Vietnam K000897977
Cuadra, A. [A2471], Malaysia K000932049
Robinson, C.B. [298], Indonesia K000932036
s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111870
Rahman [6751], Malaysia K000932055
Hutchinson, W.I. [3959], Philippines K000932059
s.coll. [s.n.], Indonesia K000932039
Marsemi [1], Indonesia K000932033
Robinson, C.B. [298bis], Indonesia K000932037
Ambri [900], Indonesia K000932034
Kochummen, K.M. [26233], Malaysia K000897974
Esser, H.J. [0471], Thailand K000897983
Miras [24457], Philippines K000932067
Kostermans, A. [737], Thailand K000897985
Hooker f. [83], Pakistan K000249763
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 772], Myanmar K001111872
Thorel, M. le [1279], Vietnam K000897981
Romero, E.M. [29078], Philippines K000932061
s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111871
Hutchinson, W.I. [3959], Philippines K000932058
Koorders, S.H. [29623], Indonesia K000932040
Pabbé Bon, M. [6094], Vietnam K000897980
Voogd, C.N.A. de [s.n.], Indonesia K000932043
Thorel, M. le [1979], Vietnam K000897976
Williams, R.S. [3123], Philippines K000932056
Miranda, D.P. [18947], Philippines K000932057
Merrill, E.D. [837], Philippines K000932063
Herb. Blume [s.n.], Indonesia K000932041
Chantaranothai, P. [90/659], Thailand K000897986
Keith, H.G. [A1530], Malaysia K000932031
Aziz [51907], Malaysia K000897975
Hutchinson, W.I. [3959], Philippines K000932060
Pray, F.L. [15407], Philippines K000932064
Jugah ak. Tagi [39941], Malaysia K000932046

First published in Suppl. Pl.: 151 (1782)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Boley J.D., Drew A.P., Andrus R.E. (2009). Effects of active pasture, teak ( Tectona grandis) and mixed native plantations on soil chemistry in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management. 257: 2254-2261.
  • Bonnington C., Weaver D., Fanning E. (2009). The use of teak ( Tectona grandis) plantations by large mammals in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. 47: 138-145.
  • Derwisch S., Schwedenmann L., Olschewski R., Holscher D. (2009). Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis in Western Panama. New Forests. 37: 227-240.
  • Ghaisas M., Navghare V., Takawale A., Zope V., Tanwar M., Deshpande A. (2009). Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. on dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 122: 304-307.
  • Nadkarni A.K. (1976). Indian Materia Medica. Volume 1. 3rd edn. Popular Prakashan, Bombay.
  • Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ (1993). Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Sumthong P., Romero-Gonzalez R.R., Verpoorte R. (2008). Identification of anti-wood rot compounds in teak ( Tectona grandis L.f.) sawdust extract. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 28: 247-260.
  • Warrier P.K. (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: a Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Longman, Hyderabad.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Cadena-González, A.L. (2010). Study of knowledge on medicinal plants in Zetaquira and Campo Hermoso municipalities (Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia) using quantitative approaches. Faculty of Life Sciences. University of Copenhagen.
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 641 (1949).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 2 (1992).
  • Gossweiler, Fl. Exot. Angola: 182 (1950).
  • Phytologia 1 : 154-165 (1935).
  • Phytologia 5 : 112–120 (1954).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 304 (1983).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Dale, Descr. List. Introd. Trees Uganda: 67 (1937)),.
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 641 (1949).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 463 (1949).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Species Profiles

    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/