Tectona grandis L.f.

First published in Suppl. Pl.: 151 (1782)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is India to Indo-China. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Ecology
Alt. 80 - 1200 m.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.
[UPB]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from India.
Morphology General
A large tree up to 50 m tall, densely cineraceous- or ochraceous-furfuraceous-tomentose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 11–95 × 6–50 cm, broadly elliptic, acute or shortly acuminate at the apex, acute or attenuate and prolonged into the winged petiole at the base or sessile and clasping, entire or repand denticulate at the margin, chartaceous, dark green, very rough or minutely bullate above, light yellow-green and densely stellate-tomentose beneath (often with a red coloration on rubbing), glabrescent, drooping; petiole short, stout, winged, densely ochraceous-furfuraceous, or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal and in the axils of the uppermost leaves, massive, usually c. 40 × 40 cm, the terminal ones often larger, densely cineraceous- or ochraceous-furfuraceous; cymes opposite, divaricate, distant, branched, many-flowered; peduncles often elongate; pedicels 1–4 mm long; bracts up to 15 × 4 mm, linear-lanceolate, attenuate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–4.5 × 3–3.5 mm, 5–7-dentate or-lobed, with teeth 1.5–2.5 mm long and ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse, often reflexed, yellow-green, densely furfuraceous-tomentellous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or with the lobes rose-coloured; tube 1.5–3 mm long and c. 1.5 mm wide; limb 5–7-partite, the segments 2.5–3 mm, obovate-elliptic, rounded at the top, erect or reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2.5–4 mm long, ampliate and flattened below, glabrous; anthers ovate or oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1.2–2 mm long, ovate or conical, pubescent; style 3.6–5.2 mm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 1.2–2 cm in diameter, subglobose or tetragonal, umbilicate and 4-lobed at the top, densely tomentose with hairs irregularly branched, light brown or ochraceous, enclosed in the inflated calyx; fruiting calyx  up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bladder-like, light brown and brittle on drying, irregularly plaited and crumpled.
Ecology
In Mozambique it is cultivated on sandy, reddish soil.
Note
Information on teak has been summarized by Krishna Murthy (Bibliography on teak, Dehra Dun, 1981). In FHO there is a sheet with three seedlings, obtained from seeds sown 29.iii.1958, at a nursery in Samfya (Zambia, N:).  However, F. White does not refer to this species as being cultivated in Zambia in the Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia.
Distribution
Mozambique Native to India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Java, it is cultivated in many tropical countries of Asia and Africa for its valuable wood District code: MOZ MS, MOZ M.
[FZ]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
It is a large tree at maturity, up to 50 m..
Morphology Leaves
Large elliptic leaves 10–100 cm. long, 5–50 cm. wide, mostly about 30 × 25 cm., stellate-tomentose beneath and often with red coloration on rubbing.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences massive, ± 40 cm. long, 35 cm. wide with stellate-tomentose axes and small white flowers, the corolla-tube ± 1.5–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, ± 1.5 cm. long and wide, enclosed in the inflated bladdery calyx 2.5 cm. long and wide.
Note
Information on teak has been summarised by Krishna Murthy (Bibliography on teak, Dehra Dun, 1981) and Moldenke gives much information (Phytologia 1:154–164 (1935) & 5:112–120 (1954)).
[FTEA]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Tectona grandis (teak) is a tall tree from southeast Asia and is widely cultivated for its durable wood, but has also been used for traditional medicine in southeast Asia. It is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), which is perhaps better known for its aromatic members including culinary herbs such as basil, oregano and rosemary.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Tectona grandis has a natural distribution from India to Vietnam and Thailand. It is also found in cultivation throughout the tropics.

Description

Teak trees can grow up to 40 m high. The bark is scaly and the leaves are opposite one another. The leaves are 6 - 75 cm long, 8 - 45 cm wide, and hairless on the upper surface when mature, with many star-shaped hairs below.

The calyxes form a balloon-like shape enveloping the fruit. The corolla is regular, and white to cream-coloured. The fruit is pale yellow, of 1.2 to 2 cm diameter, and covered with star-shaped hairs.

Threats and conservation

Although the species itself is common, the unique teak forests of India, Burma and Thailand are under threat from over-exploitation.

Uses

Tectona grandis is the source of a high quality general purpose hardwood known as teak. The timber is used for ship decking, flooring, furniture and construction. It is particularly recommended for construction in seaside environments (such as bridges and docks) because it is resistant to shipworm, a wood-boring sea mollusc ( Teredo spp., Teredinidae). Quinones in the sawdust inhibit the growth of several species of the fungi that cause wood rot.

Leaves of Tectona grandis Teak is widely cultivated in the tropics; the main producers are Burma, India, Thailand and Indonesia. Like all forests, plantations of teak can act as carbon stores; in Panama, for example, teak plantations sequester carbon dioxide at a rate of 191.1 mg per hectare during a twenty-year rotation. Soil analyses in Costa Rica indicate that teak plantations may improve the soil quality of lands previously under pasture. In Tanzania, wildlife forage is provided by young teak plantations where grass and herbs grow in the understorey.

Teak has traditionally been used in southeast Asia for medicine, commonly for its astringent and diuretic properties and against swelling. Its traditional use for diabetes has been supported by laboratory tests in which extracts of the bark have been shown to lower insulin resistance in mice. The wood has also been said to relieve skin irritations caused by handling cashew nuts ( Anacardium occidentale , Anacardiaceae) and marking nuts ( Semecarpus anacardium , Anacardiaceae).

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:  One

Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox - the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB

Composition values: Oil content 34%

Cultivation

Tectona grandis grows best in a warm, tropical climate with a temperature above 22 ºC. Teak prefers well-drained, fertile soils and is a strong light demander.

Trees are 96 to 100% self-incompatible. The species is hermaphroditic and pollinated by insects, especially bees. Propagation by seed involves pre-treatment to break the dormancy, involving wetting and drying the seed every 12 hours, over a period of two weeks. When seeds are sown in a mix of sand and coir, at 22 to 25ºC, germination will take place within two to four weeks. The germination rate is low, and teak seedlings need shading.

Vegetative propagation can be achieved by grafting and budding. Tissue cultures have also been developed for the propagation of teak.

Distribution
India, Thailand, Vietnam
Ecology
This species naturally occurs in deciduous forests, but is planted commonly along roadsides and in large plantations throughout the tropics.
Conservation
IUCN status of Least Concern (LC).
Hazards

None known.

[KSP]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 80–1200 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Córdoba, Magdalena, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Tree.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 1200 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
[CPLC]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
teca, teco
[UNAL]

Uses

Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Wood
Entire plant - Used for construction (Cadena-González 2010).
[UPB]

Use
Building material, medicinal.
[KSP]

Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Teak
Spanish
Teca.

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/